Migration of monocytes and other immune cells is further aided by endothelial-expressed chemokines [monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), macrophage inflammatory protein-1[beta] (MIP-1[beta]), epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA78), interferon-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (ITAC), and interferon-inducible protein- (IP-) 10] and cytokines [interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-10, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] (TNF-[alpha]), interferon-[gamma]-inducing factor (IFN-[gamma]), etc.] [3-5].
ENA78 and RANTES (P [less than or equal to] 0.02; both) decreased in the MeDiet+EVOO group at 3 and 5 years of follow-up.
On the other hand, RANTES and ENA78 increased from 25 to 50% in the LFD group compared to both MeDiet groups at 3 and 5 years of nutritional intervention.
Other cytokines released by ASMCs are as follows: IL-6 [117, 118], CXCL-1 , CCL-2 (MCP-1) , neutrophil activating protein (NAP-2), epithelial neutrophil activating peptide 78 (ENA78
, also known as CXCL-5) , and CCL-17 (TARC) .
Seven proteins, which were either growth factors (IGF-1, IL-7, IL-12p40, PDGFE-), or were involved in immune response (ENA78
, MIP-1E-, IP-10), and pro-collagen (PIIINP) were all reduced in older men.