analyzed the expression of seven stem cell markers as well as differentiation and microglia markers and demonstrated that CD44, ELF4
, Nanog, and Nestin were elevated at both mRNA and protein levels in GBM, but only CD133 and Nestin were associated with survival rates.
In this network, genes with the highest out-degree are SP1, MAZ, ELF4
, ELF1, ELF2, SPI1, ELK1, ELK4, GABPA, and GABPB2.
Initiation factors: effectors of mRNA recruitment to ribosomes and regulators of translation.
The expression level of Cd-induced gene or transcription factor has been investigated in many species, which include some Cd-responsive genes and transcription factors , several antioxidative enzyme genes , a circadian gene, elongation factor 4 (ELF4)  in Arabidopsis thaliana, a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene in rice , several antioxidative enzyme genes in pea , Cd detoxification and antioxidant response genes in barley , and some metal transporters genes in Solanum torvum Sw.
Furini, "Cadmium affects the expression of ELF4, a circadian clock gene in Arabidopsis," Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol.
These ALK interacting molecules modulate protein phosphatases, upregulate downstream targets of the mTOR pathway that are involved in ribosome biosynthesis and translation (ribosomal S6 kinase, translational initiation factor elF4
, ribosomal protein L11, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, translation initiation factor IF-2 homolog, and translation initiation factor elF-2[alpha]), and regulate cytoskelet al molecules such as the focal adhesion protein paxillin as well as the adaptor scaffold GRB2.
Besides CD133, several other proteins are discussed as potential markers for GSCs including the transcription factors ELF4  and Nanog , the transmembrane receptor CD44 , the efflux transporter ABCG2 , and the filament protein Nestin .
This study represents a comprehensive analysis of the expression of the most discussed and most specific candidate stem cell (ABCG2, CD44, CD95, CD133, ELF4, Nanog, and Nestin) as well as differentiation and microglia markers (GFAP, Iba1, and Sparc) at the level of both mRNA and protein in primary GBM samples in comparison to nonmalignant brain specimens as well as in stem-like GBM neurospheres.
The mRNA expression was analyzed by the following Gene Expression Assays on Demand from Applied Biosystems: ABCG2, Hs01053790_m1; CD133 (PROM1), Hs01009250_m1; CD44, Hs0107586_m1; CD95, Hs0110621_m1; ELF4, Hs01086126_m1; GFAP, Hs0090923 6_m1; Iba1 (AIF1), Hs00610419_m1; Nanog, Hs04260366_ g1; Nestin, Hs04187831_m1; Sparc, Hs00234160_m1; and eukaryotic 18S rRNA endogenous control, 4319413E.