# ELBW

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Related to ELBW: very low birth weight

## ELBW

Extremely low birth weight infant, see there.

## weight

(wat)
The gravitational force exerted on an object, usually by the earth. The unit of weight is the newton (1 newton equals 0.225 lb). The difference between weight and mass is that the weight of an object varies with the force of gravity, but the mass remains the same. For example, an object weighs less on the moon than on earth because the force of gravity is less on the moon; but the mass of the object is the same in both places. See: mass (3)

Many diseases cause alterations of body weight (BW). BW decreases in Addison's disease, AIDS, cancer, chronic diarrhea, chronic infections, untreated type I diabetes mellitus, anorexia, prolonged lactation, marasmus, obstruction of the pylorus or thoracic duct, starvation, tuberculosis, and peptic ulcer.

Normal weight depends on the frame of the individual. See: table

### apothecaries' weight

See: apothecaries' weights and measures

### atomic weight

Abbreviation: at. wt.
The weight of an atom of an element compared with that of 112 the weight of carbon-12. The term is widely used, but the correct term is atomic mass.

### avoirdupois weight

See: avoirdupois measure

### birth weight

The weight of a newborn. The normal weight of a newborn is between 5.5 lb (2.5 kg) and 10 lb (4.5 kg) and is directly related to the gestational age at which the infant was born. Birth weight is an important index of maturation and chance for survival. Weight of less than 2.5 kg is known as low birth weight (LBW) and is associated with an increased chance of death in the perinatal period. Medical advances have increased the chance of survival of newborns of 2.0 kg or more. See: large for gestational age; small for gestational age See: low birth weight

### dosing weight

The body weight used for calculating the appropriate dosage of a medication for those whose weight exceeds the usual average range. Weight-based dosing is used to correct for different drug distributions and pharmacodynamics in overweight or obese patients.

### CAUTION!

Obese patients metabolize fat-soluble medications differently from lean patients, and the differences may result in clinically important undermedication or overmedication. One formula used to calculate a safe weight-based dosage for obese patients depends on the total body weight (TBW) and ideal body weight (IBW) as follows: dosing weight = (0.3)(TBW–IBW) + IBW.

### drained weight

The weight of food solids that remain after the liquids in which they have been prepared are removed.

### dry weight

The body weight of a person after ideal hemodialysis, i.e., of a patient in renal failure who has neither edema nor high blood pressure.

### equivalent weight

An obsolete term for the weight of a chemical element that is equivalent to and will replace a hydrogen atom (1.008 g) in a chemical reaction.

### extremely low birth weight

Abbreviation: ELBW
A birth weight of less than 1000 g (2.2 lb).

### gram molecular weight

Gram molecular mass.

### ideal body weight

Abbreviation: IBW
The weight in pounds or kilograms a person should weigh, based on height and frame, to achieve and maintain optimal health. Several tables, such as the Metropolitan Life Height and Weight Table, show ideal body weights for men and women of varying heights. These references may be used to help set goals for patients who are underweight or overweight. See: weight for table

### low birth weight

Abbreviation: LBW
Abnormally low weight of a newborn, usually less than 2500 g. Its causes include: preterm delivery of less than 37 weeks, multiple gestation, an abnormal uterus or cervix, congenital (genetic) anomalies in the fetus, maternal smoking or illicit drug use, placental malformation or malfunction, inadequate maternal nutrition, or a variety of other socioeconomic problems. Early, regular prenatal care and control of chronic and acute health problems help reduce risk. A series of ultrasounds can monitor fetal development. Early delivery is necessary if the fetus does not show signs of improvement. Incomplete maturation of the newborn's lungs is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in LBW infants. Surfactants and a variety of neonatal technological supports decrease burden of this disease. Nursing/perinatal considerations include maintaining normal body temperature; diagnosis and treatment of hypoglycemia; maintenance of fluid, electrolyte, and nutritional status; and careful monitoring of newborn intake and output. Respiratory distress may be present, requiring oxygen and ventilation. Many preterm infants also have hyperbilirubinemia and are treated with phototherapy.

### molecular weight

Abbreviation: mol. wt.; MW
The weight of a molecule attained by totaling the atomic weight (mass) of its constituent atoms.
See: atomic weight

### set point weight

The concept that body weight is controlled by the central nervous system and set at a certain value. The value is more or less stable until something occurs to alter it, e.g., when a disturbance of hypothalamic function interferes with the satiety and feeding centers.

### troy weight

A system of weighing gold, silver, precious metals, and jewels in which 5760 gr equal 1 lb (1gr equals 0.0648 g).

### usual body weight

Abbreviation: UBW
Body weight value used to compare a person's current weight with his or her own baseline weight. The UBW may be a more realistic goal than the ideal body weight for some individuals. See: ideal body weight

### very low birth weight

Abbreviation: VLBW
A body weight at delivery of less than 1500 g (but more than 500 g). Newborns that are this small make up about 1% of all births in the U.S. but account for about 60% of deaths in the first month of life.

### weight in volume

Abbreviation: w/v
The amount by weight (mass) of a solid substance dissolved in a measured quantity of liquid. Percent w/v expresses the number of grams of an ingredient in 100 mL of solution.

### weight in weight

Abbreviation: w/w
The amount by weight of a solid substance dissolved in a known amount (by weight) of liquid. Percent w/w expresses the number of grams of one ingredient in 100 g of solution.
SOURCE OF BASIC DATA: Build Study, 1979, Society of Actuaries and Association of Life Insurance Medical Directors of America, 1980. Copyright 1983 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. Reprinted Courtesy of Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, Statistical Bulletin.Copyright 1983 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company.* Shoes with 1-in. heels.† Indoor clothing weighing 5 lb for men and 3 lb for women.
MenWomen
Height (in shoes)*Weight in Pounds (in indoor clothing)†Height (in shoes)*Weight in Pounds (in indoor clothing)†
Ft.In.Small FrameMedium FrameLarge FrameFt.In.Small FrameMedium FrameLarge Frame
5 2128–134131–141138–150410102–111109–121118–131
5 3130–136133–143140–153411103–113111–123120–134
5 4132–138135–145142–1565 0104–115113–126122–137
5 5134–140137–148144–1605 1106–118115–129125–140
5 6136–142139–151146–1645 2108–121118–132128–143
5 7138–145142–154149–1685 3111–124121–135131–147
5 8140–148145–157152–1725 4114–127124–138134–151
5 9142–151148–160155–1765 5117–130127–141137–155
510144–154151–163158–1805 6120–133130–144140–159
511146–157154–166161–1845 7123–136133–147143–163
6 0149–160157–170164–1885 8126–139136–150146–167
6 1152–164160–174168–1925 9129–142139–153149–170
6 2155–168164–178172–197510132–145142–156152–173
6 3158–172167–182176–202511135–148145–159155–176
6 4162–176171–187181–2076 0138–151148–162158–179

## extremely low birth weight

Abbreviation: ELBW
A birth weight of less than 1000 g (2.2 lb).
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References in periodicals archive ?
Basing nutrition calculations in ELBW on birth weight rather than current daily weight until the birth weight is regained resulted in significantly higher protein delivery, a significant decrease in the incidence of failure to thrive, and smaller head circumference percentiles at discharge in ELBW infants.
Direct bilirubin level was the highest in the LBW group, but the mean value for the indirect bilirubin for LBW, VLBW and ELBW groups were 3.941.65, 4.211.72, and 4.521.33 mg/dL, respectively.
By utilizing a dedicated team with expertise in the care of these patients, CHOC Children's clinicians have determined that establishing a unit dedicated to the care of ELBW patients has led to improved quality and outcomes.
While previous studies were concerned with the effects of ELBW or LBW in children in developed countries, the studies relied mostly on standardized laboratory-based measures of academic achievement rather than actual school outcomes.
Plasma from whole blood of ELBW newborns treated with IFN-[gamma] significantly increased the phagocytosis of SA and SE by HL-60 cells [65].
Hindmarsh et al., (2000) found gender differences in the hearing and speech subscales of the Griffiths Scales: ELBW girls obtained higher scores than ELBW boys.
Gargus conducted during her fellowship at Brown University, Providence, R.I., she and her associates reviewed prospectively collected data from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) course and follow-up visits of 71 female and 53 male ELBW infant survivors who were admitted to Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island in Providence from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001.
Academically the ELBW adolescents' performance was markedly different from that of their peers, Ms.
In one study, 36 children born full term were compared with 36 ELBW children at 3 years of age and again at 4 years of age.
"The ELBW children had been born between 1977 and 1982 when survival in babies of that size was only 48%.
[1] Very low-birthweight (VLBW) and extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants have the highest risk for mortality and morbidity.

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