In fact, glutamatergic-related genes such as the excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2
) and ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate 3 (GRIK3) polymorphisms are associated with several personality dimensions/subdimensions such as reward dependence and harm avoidance, as measured by Temperament and Character Inventory.
Kegelman et al., "Role of excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (EAAT2
) and glutamate in neurodegeneration: opportunities for developing novel therapeutics," Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol.
These RNA transcripts include TDP-43 itself, FUS, glial excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (EAAT2
, solute carrier family 1 member 2 (SLC1A2), or glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1)), amyloid beta precursor protein (APP), presenilins, huntingtin, ataxins, synuclein, progranulin, and tau [25, 26].
Other proteins expressed by astrocytes such as connexin 30 and 43 (gap junction proteins), the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the calcium-binding protein S100[beta] and the amino acid transporters 1 and 2 (EAAT1, EAAT2
), and glutamine synthetase have altered expression levels in both animals models of stress and in human brain samples analyzed postmortem compared with controls (reviewed in ).
Goffredo et al., "Motor neuron impairment mediated by a sumoylated fragment of the glial glutamate transporter EAAT2
," Glia, vol.
She et al., "Focal loss of the glutamate transporter EAAT2
in a transgenic rat model of SOD1 mutant-mediated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
The glutamate transporter EAAT2
is transiently expressed in developing human cerebral white matter.
Su ZZ, Das SK, Dash R, Dasgupta S, Barral PM, Hedvat M, Diaz P et al (2011) Role of excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (EAAT2
) and glutamate in neurodegeneration: opportunities for developing novel therapeutics.
The gene, called EAAT2
, had been linked with epilepsy, schizophrenia and mood and anxiety.
"Although we knew that the EAAT2
gene has a crucial role to play in neurological processes in human and potentially in the development of migraine, until now, no genetic link has been identified to suggest that glutamate accumulation in the brain could play a role in common migraine," said Christian Kubisch of University of Ulm.