The analgesic effect of our electroacupuncture could be due to the release of endogenous opiates such as dynorphins
, which is primarily released with high frequency electroacupuncture.
The preferred ligands of the mu receptor are beta-endorphin and enkephalin, those of the delta receptor are the leu- and met-enkephalines, and dynorphins
A and B are those preferred by kappa receptors.
Similarly, receptors of other neuropeptides like somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, galanin, dynorphin
, enkephalin, substance P, cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, hormones such as ghrelin, angiotensins, corticotropin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, oxytocin, and vasopressin involved in epilepsy .
Activation of the dynorphin/[kappa] receptor system can produce analgesic actions similar to other opioids but also actions that are opposite to those of [mu] opioid receptors in the motivational domain, where dynorphins
produce aversive, dysphoric-like effects in animals and humans (Shippenberg et al.
Specific receptor for the opioid peptide dynorphin
: Structure-activity relationships.
Thus, deregulation of noradrenaline, dynorphin
, vasopressin, orexin, and substance P all appear to play a role in alcohol dependence (Koob 2008).
Morphine is an opioid; it mimics the effect of endogenous opioids such as encephalins, endorphins and dynorphins
(Rang et al 1999).
The availability of endogenous opioid peptides, endorphins, enkephalins and dynorphins
, led to the characterization of the opioid receptor subtypes, mu, delta, and kappa.
In addition to the modulating effects of GABA and serotonin, the release of endogenous opioids, b-endorphins, enkephalins and dynorphins
will down-regulate the excitatory mechanisms that negatively affect the immune system.
The three main classes of endogenous opioids are endorphins, enkephalins, and dynorphins
. Endorphins also are derived from POMC, which also is the precursor for ACTH.
The reverse, however, is true of dynorphins
: They are known for putting a damper on emotional moods.
There are three major classes of endogenous opioid peptides: endorphins, enkephalins, and dynorphins
. Each of these types of peptides is formed from larger precursor molecules that, depending on the enzymes present in a particular cell, are cut into smaller opioid molecules which then are released from the cells (Oswald and Wand 2004):