Dupuytren's contracture


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contracture

 [kon-trak´cher]
abnormal shortening of muscle tissue, rendering the muscle highly resistant to stretching; this can lead to permanent disability. It can be caused by fibrosis of the tissues supporting the muscle or the joint, or by disorders of the muscle fibers themselves.

Improper support and positioning of joints affected by arthritis or injury, and inadequate exercising of joints in patients with paralysis can result in contractures. For example, a patient with arthritis or severe burns may assume the most comfortable position and will resist changing position because motion is painful. If the joints are allowed to remain in this position, the muscle fibers that normally provide motion will stretch or shorten to accommodate the position and eventually will lose their ability to contract and relax.

In many cases contractures can be prevented by range of motion exercises (active or passive), and by adequate support of the joints to eliminate constant shortening or stretching of the muscles and surrounding tissues.
Dupuytren's contracture a flexion deformity of the fingers or toes, due to shortening, thickening, and fibrosis of the palmar or plantar fascia.
ischemic contracture muscular contracture and degeneration due to interference with the circulation due to pressure or to injury or cold.
Volkmann's contracture contraction of the fingers and sometimes of the wrist, or of analogous parts of the foot, with loss of power, after severe injury or improper use of a tourniquet or cast in the region of the elbow.

Dupuytren's contracture

[dYpY·itraNs′, dēpē·itranz′]
Etymology: Guillaume Dupuytren, French surgeon, 1777-1835; L, contractura drawing together
a progressive painless thickening and tightening of subcutaneous tissue of the palm, causing the fourth and fifth fingers to bend into the palm and resist extension. Tendons and nerves are not involved. Although the condition begins in one hand, both become symmetrically affected. Of unknown cause, it is most frequent in middle-aged males. Early surgical removal of the excess fibrous tissue under general anesthesia restores full use of the hand. An incision is made in the palm, and the thickened tissue is excised carefully to prevent injury to adjacent ligaments.

contracture

(kon-trak'chur) [L. contractura, a drawing together]
Enlarge picture
CONTRACTURE OF THE RIGHT HAND
Fibrosis of connective tissue in skin, fascia, muscle, or a joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint. See: illustration

Dupuytren's contracture

See: Dupuytren's contracture

fibrotic contracture

Contraction of a muscle in which the muscle tissue has been replaced by fibrous tissue because of injury.

functional contracture

Contraction of a muscle that decreases during anesthesia or sleep.

myostatic contracture

Adaptive shortening of muscle, usually caused by immobilization and without tissue pathology.

physiological contracture

A temporary condition in which tension and shortening of a muscle are maintained for a considerable time although there is no tetanus. It may be induced by injury, disease, heat, drug action, or acids.

pseudomyostatic contracture

An apparent permanent contraction of a muscle due to a central nervous system lesion, resulting in loss of range of motion and resistance of the muscle to stretch.

Volkmann's contracture

See: Volkmann, Richard von

Dupuytren's contracture

Shortening of some of the tendons on the palm of the hand, as a result of inflammation, so that one or more fingers are pulled into a permanently bent position. The ring finger is usually the first to be affected. Treatment is by careful surgical removal of the thickened, contracted tissue. The condition is unrelated to manual labour. It is believed to be mediated by free radicals and is commoner in people with AIDS than in the general population. (Baron Guillaume Dupuytren, 1777–1835, French surgeon).

Dupuytren's contracture

development of thick, nodular fibrous bands within palmar and plantar fascia, typified by flexion contracture of fifth and fourth digits, so that the hand may no longer be opened fully, and the fifth and fourth fingernails embed into palmar skin; more common in the elderly and alcoholics
References in periodicals archive ?
Peimer reviewed the charts of 302 patients with Dupuytren's contracture who were treated with collagenase injections at 10 U.
In February 2012, Auxilium entered into a collaboration agreement with Actelion for the long-term development and commercialization of XIAFLEX for the treatment of Dupuytren's contracture and Peyronie's disease in Canada, Australia, Brazil and Mexico upon receipt of the respective regulatory approvals.
Malvern PA) said that patients taking its Dupuytren's contracture treatment Xiaflex in a two-year study had a recurrence rate of 19.
One in four sufferers also have a claw-like condition of the hand known as Dupuytren's contracture.
A biologic drug that breaks down collagen and is injected directly into the cords involved in Dupuytren's contracture of the hand has been approved by the FDA, providing the first nonsurgical treatment for this condition, the agency announced.
of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor) and international contributors present step-by-step protocols, postoperative care, and expected outcomes for 83 frequently performed orthopedic procedures (repairs, reconstructions, and amputation) relating to finger fractures/ dislocations, the wrist, nerve and tendon transfers, tendon conditions, osteoarthritic conditions, rheumatoid arthritis, flaps and microsurgery, congenital conditions, spastic conditions, Dupuytren's contracture and miscellaneous procedures.
We believe this is a significant milestone in the clinical development program for AA4500, which we also are developing for treatment of Dupuytren's Contracture and Frozen Shoulder Syndrome," said Armando Anido, chief executive officer and president of Auxilium Pharmaceuticals.
Thickening, shortening, and fibrosis and nodule formation of the palmar fascia is termed Dupuytren's contracture (DC).
Changes in the biomechanical properties of diseased tissue as pathogenetic factors in Dupuytren's contracture.
But some Tory MPs believe he should have copied the stoic example of Margaret Thatcher who was back at work the same day after she had surgery for Dupuytren's contracture, a curvature of the fingers, while she was Premier.
A common example is a condition known as Dupuytren's contracture of the hand.