placebo

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placebo

 [plah-se´bo] (L.)
1. a supposedly inert substance such as a sugar pill or injection of sterile water, given under the guise of effective treatment. Paradoxically, it may exert either a positive or a negative effect on the recipient (see placebo effect). A positive placebo effect can occur when caregiver and patient believe and expect a medication or procedure will relieve symptoms. Placebos are sometimes used in controlled clinical trials of new drugs; while some patients selected at random are given the new drug, others are given a placebo. It may be an active placebo that mimics the new drug's side effects. The patients taking the new drug must have significantly more relief of symptoms than the control group taking the placebo for the new drug to be considered to be effective. See also single blind, double blind, and triple blind.
2. the term has been extended to mean virtually any type of ineffective treatment, including surgery and psychotherapy. Use of placebos is ethically problematic because it deceives the patient. Ethical questions regarding the use of placebos include: (1) Is deception necessary to produce benefit? and (2) Do placebos have a nondeceptive use?

pla·ce·bo

(plă-sē'bō),
1. An inert substance given as a medicine for its suggestive effect.
2. An inert compound identical in appearance to material being tested in experimental research, which may or may not be known to the physician or patient, administered to distinguish between drug action and suggestive effect of the material under study.
Synonym(s): active placebo
[L. I will please, future of placeo]

placebo

(plə-sē′bō)
n. pl. place·bos or place·boes
a. A substance that has positive effects as a result of a patient's perception that it is beneficial rather than as a result of a causative ingredient.
b. An inactive substance or preparation used as a control in an experiment or test to determine the effectiveness of a medicinal drug.

placebo

An inactive material, often in the form of a capsule, pill or tablet, that is visually identical in appearance to a drug being tested in a clinical trial. The use of placebo control is a required component of the FDA’s drug approval process, as the agent must be proven more effective than the placebo.

Ethical questions are sometimes raised about certain uses of placebo controls, as when a negative or placebo control is required to evaluate the efficacy of a therapeutic manoeuvre (thereby denying the placebo group of the therapy’s potential benefit).

placebo

Medtalk An inactive material, in the form of a capsule, pill, or tablet, which is visually identical, and administered by the same route as a drug being tested; a chemically inert substance given in the guise of medicine for its psychologically suggestive effect; used in controlled clinical trials to determine whether improvement and side effects may reflect imagination or anticipation rather than the drug's power. See Dose control trial, Equivalence trial, Putative placebo trial. Cf Nocebo.

pla·ce·bo

(plă-sē'bō)
1. A medicinally inactive substance given as a medicine for its suggestive effect.
2. An inert compound identical in appearance to material being tested in experimental research, which may or may not be known to the physician or patient, administered to distinguish between drug action and suggestive effect of the material under study.
3. Any treatment or intervention with no intrinsic therapeutic value performed to achieve a "placebo effect."
[L. I will please, future of placeo]

placebo

1. A pharmacologically inactive substance made up in a form apparently identical to an active drug that is under trial. Both the placebo and the active drug are given, but the subjects are unaware which is which. This is done for the purpose of eliminating effects due to purely psychological causes.
2. A harmless preparation prescribed to satisfy a patient who does not require active medication. From the Latin placere, to please. See also PLACEBO EFFECT.

placebo

  1. any inactive substance given to satisfy a patient's psychological need for medication.
  2. a control in an experiment to test the effect of a drug.

Placebo

An inactive substance with no pharmacological action that is administered to some patients in clinical trials to determine the relative effectiveness of another drug administered to a second group of patients.

placebo 

A substance or a prescription (e.g. plano lenses) devoid of any physiological effect that is given merely to satisfy a patient. It is also used in research as a control against which the real effect of another product (similar in appearance) can be established. See single-blind study; randomized controlled trial.

pla·ce·bo

(plă-sē'bō)
Inert substance given as a medicine for its suggestive effect.
Synonym(s): active placebo.
[L. I will please, future of placeo]
References in periodicals archive ?
But MRI brain scans showed that the diseased area increased about 20 percent in MS patients taking the dummy drug but only about 7 percent in those taking moderate levels of the drug; it decreased 4 percent in those taking high doses.
Half were told to take one 100mg aspirin tablet every other day for ten years while the remainder were given a placebo - a dummy drug.
The latest study, published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ), found that compared with a dummy drug, lumiracoxib increased the risk of heart attacks while ibuprofen was linked to the highest risk of stroke (more than treble.)
People were split into two groups and given either a daily dose of 600mg aspirin or a dummy drug.
He said: "A placebo is a dummy drug that is made to look like the real drug and is used in medical trials as a control.
After 19 months, about a quarter of the treated children had died, compared with more than 40% of those receiving the dummy drug.
Researchers pointed out that many patients given active medication correctly guessed they were not taking a dummy drug, which may have skewed the results.
About 7,600 patients were involved in the study, receiving either aspirin or a dummy drug on top of clopidogrel.
His study involved 30 acrophobic individuals, ten of whom were given a dummy drug while the rest received either a small or a standard dose of D-cycloserine.
After two years, the high-dose patients had one-third fewer exacerbations than those on the dummy drug. The episodes they had were milder and they spent less time in the hospital.
More than 2,000 patients in the phase three trial of Solanezumab did not show slowing of mental decline compared to those treated with a dummy drug.
In one study cited by the authors, people who took a dummy drug that was allegedly supposed to make them feel more alert began to pay closer attention in a monitoring test because they expected the drug would make them do so.