Unintentional transfer of vaccinia virus associated with smallpox vaccines: ACAM2000 compared with Dryvax
In June 2015, ACIP, having reviewed recent clinical data, reaffirmed the CDC's standing recommendations that the live vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine ACAM2000 (which replaced Dryvax
in 2008) be administered routinely to those with occupational exposure to orthopox viruses (eg, laboratory personnel who work with monkeypox, variola, or smallpox viruses).
was used to create ACAM2000, which is made using a live poxvirus called vaccinia.
Acambis is investigating the side-effects, also seen in patients on rival drug Dryvax
There will be no study to test the Dryvax
smallpox vaccine in children as preparation for a bioterrorism attack, the Office of Human Research Protection of the U.
In primary vaccinees, the Dryvax
package instructions are to give two or three insertions with the bifurcated needle.
The FDA relicensed Dryvax
vaccine produced by Wyeth Lederle, with the production of a new vaccine-Acam--expected to be completed in May 2003, and licensure in early 2004.
Approximately 15 million doses of Dryvax
vaccine have been stored since production stopped in 1983, however, it is speculated that should there be a biological attack involving smallpox, the available vaccine would not meet the demand.
Since 2001, when the previous ACIP recommendations were developed, ACAM2000 has replaced Dryvax
as the only smallpox vaccine licensed by the U.
It produces reactions and immune responses similar to those of first-generation Dryvax
vaccine (Wyeth Laboratories, New York, NY, USA) (26).
The vaccine, which is derived from Dryvax
, the currently licensed smallpox vaccine, is not being considered for use in the general population.
In fact, suspected myopericarditis cases have halted clinical trials comparing the investigational smallpox vaccine ACAM2000 with the licensed vaccine, Dryvax