clinical trial

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trial

 [tri´al, trīl]
a test or experiment.
clinical trial an experiment performed on human beings in order to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two or more therapies. See also single blind, double blind, and triple blind.

clinical trial

a controlled experiment involving a defined set of human subjects, having a clinical event as an outcome measure, and intended to yield scientifically valid information about the efficacy or safety of a drug, vaccine, diagnostic test, surgical procedure, or other form of medical intervention.

Four phases of clinical trial are distinguished. Phase I trials usually involve fewer than 100 healthy volunteers who are exposed to a new drug or procedure. Such studies seek to establish optimal dosage and route of administration and to detect adverse reactions. Phase II trials generally involve 200-500 volunteers randomly assigned to control and study groups. These are pilot efficacy studies, with emphasis on immunogenicity in the case of vaccines, and on relative efficacy and safety in the case of drugs, procedures, and devices. Phase III trials, often multicenter, involve thousands of volunteers, randomly assigned to control and study groups. The aim is to generate statistically relevant data. Phase IV trials are conducted after a national drug registration authority (in the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration) has approved an agent for distribution or sale. They may explore specific pharmacologic effects, adverse reactions, or long-term effects.

clinical trial

n.
A research study using consenting human subjects that tests the effectiveness and safety of a treatment, a diagnostic tool, or a prophylactic intervention.

clinical trial

A research study involving human subjects designed to answer specific questions about the safety and efficacy of a biomedical intervention (drug, treatment, device), or new ways of using a known drug, treatment or device.

clinical trial

Clinical medical trial, clinical research trial Research A controlled study involving human subjects, designed to evaluate prospectively the safety and effectiveness of new drugs or devices or behavioral interventions. See Drug discovery, IND, Phase I, II, and III studies.

clin·i·cal trial

(klini-kăl trīăl)
A controlled experiment involving a defined set of human subjects, having a clinical event as an outcome measure, and intended to yield scientifically valid information about the efficacy or safety of a drug, vaccine, diagnostic test, surgical procedure, or other form of medical intervention.

clinical trial

a scientifically controlled study under specific conditions, to test, for example, the effectiveness of a drug/ treatment.

Clinical trial

All new drugs undergo clinical trials before approval. Clinical trials are carefully conducted tests in which effectiveness and side effects are studied, with the placebo effect eliminated.

trial, randomized controlled (RCT) 

An experimental design used for testing the effectiveness of a new medication or a new therapeutic procedure. Individuals are assigned randomly to a treatment group (experimental therapy) and a control group (placebo or standard therapy) and the outcomes are compared. The trial is strengthened by 'blinding' or masking (single-blind, double-blind or triple-blind study) and cross-over design. RCT is the most accepted scientific method of determining the benefit of a drug or a therapeutic procedure. It represents the best evidence available, which is integrated into the final decision about the management of a condition by healthcare practitioners in what is called evidence-based healthcare. Syn. randomized clinical trial. See sampling; significance; study.

clinical trial,

n a trial based upon the scientific method in which a control group and a test group are compared over time in order to study a single, differing factor.
References in periodicals archive ?
Her excuse sounds fairly similar to Rio Ferdinand's defence that he was so fixated on buying a new duvet cover that he forgot he'd been told the drug testers were waiting for him, too.
Indeed, at club training sessions, it is rare for the drug testers even to be allowed on to the pitch to watch the proceedings.
First day off in a while, so I was very pleased to get woken up by drug testers.
Now I feel like a proper cowboy and I've got the battle scars to prove it" Celebrity chef Jamie Oliver, who had to ride a horse for a new TV series "First day off in a while, so I was very pleased to get woken up by drug testers.
Six years ago 19 players from junior club Penygraig were banned for 15 months for refusing to submit to drug testers.
He added: "I was at my parents' house and at midnight I realised I had not texted the drug testers to tell them where I would be.
Johns conceded his family, the Knights club and team-mates were aware of his drug problem and feared the day the drug testers would catch up with him.
A furlong and a half away from the winner's enclosure celebrations for Frankie Dettori's first Derby win, another Epsom Classic debutant, groom Noel O'Connor, was waiting for Authorized to do the necessary for the post-race drug testers.
This includes a growing number of medical equipment products such as pregnancy testers, dialysis monitoring (blood sugar), drug testers and much more.
He finished third behind me and Mark Lewis-Francis at the last European Indoors two years ago, and isn't someone to underestimate,' reflected Gardener, whose departure for Karlsruhe was delayed after spending a lengthy time producing urine samples for the drug testers.
Last week Rusedski admitted ATP drug testers had discovered excessive amounts of nandrolone in his system, but claimed he has been "singled out" because 46 other players also tested positive for varying levels of the banned steroid.
Whitaker stresses that official drug testers are more or less in cahoots with the drug companies trying to find the next market-dominating medicine, leading to exaggerated or misleading praise for new drugs.