The events combined a classic "dread risk" (radioactivity), a punctuating event (the Fukushima nuclear disaster), and resultant stigmatization (involving worldwide repercussions for nuclear power).
Further, the traditional accounts of both secondary retroactivity and dread risks emphasize the potential for agency overreaching, enhance the importance of procedure in mitigating such behavior, and rely on judicial review to incentivize agencies to mitigate unfairness to regulated entities.
A dread risk
elicits visceral feelings of terror, uncontrollable, catastrophe, inequality, and uncontrolled self.
Risk perception was assessed using the same survey used in the Diabetes Prevention Program (Diabetes Care 2003;26:2543-8), and included measures of personal control, worry, optimistic bias, comparative disease risk, comparative environmental risk, diabetes risk knowledge, unknown risk, and "dread risk
Factor-analytic research (18,19) has shown that risk perception incorporates 2 prevailing factors: 1) dread risk
, which involves evaluations of control, catastrophic potential, fatal consequences, and cost-benefit ratio, and 2) unknown risk, or whether the outcome of concern is new and observable, and if its effects are immediate.
According to Gigerenzer, people tend to avoid situations for which they feel "dread risk," a fear of many deaths occurring at once.
residents' responses to the dread risk associated with flying backfired, the German researcher concludes in an upcoming Psychological Science.