drawer test


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draw·er sign

in a knee examination, the forward or backward sliding of the tibia under applied stress, which indicates laxity or tear of the anterior (forward slide) or posterior (backward slide) cruciate ligament of the knee.
Synonym(s): drawer test
A test used to evaluate anterior or posterior shoulder instability
Method Medial compression of the humerus into the glenoid comprises the 'load' portion, while translating the humerus anteriorly or posteriorly comprises the 'shift'

draw·er sign

(drōr sīn)
In a knee examination, abnormal forward or backward sliding of the tibia with respect to the femur indicating laxity or tear of the anterior (forward slide) or posterior (backward slide) cruciate ligament of the knee.
Synonym(s): drawer test.

drawer test

(dro'(e)r)
Determination of the instability of ligaments by forcibly displacing one bone or structure relative to another.

1. Assessment of the cruciate ligament(s) of the knee. The knee is flexed to 90° with the foot stabilized on the examination table. The examiner applies an anterior, then a posterior, force against the upper tibia, perpendicular to the long axis of the leg. An increased glide, anterior or posterior, of the tibia is caused by rupture of the anterior or posterior cruciate ligament, respectively.

2. Assessment of the anterior talofibular ligament of the ankle. The foot is placed in its neutral position, the knee is flexed to a minimum of 20° to release the tension of the gastrocnemius muscle, and the tibia is stabilized. The examiner cups the posterior and plantar surface of the calcaneus and draws the foot forward, observing for increased displacement of the lateral foot and talus relative to the opposite extremity. These findings suggest rupture of the ligament. Synonym: drawer sign.

References in periodicals archive ?
To look for this injury, veterinarians do something called a "drawer test," which involves moving the tibia in relation to the femur.
The pre-menarche dancers started dance training earlier (p = 0.008), and showed significantly higher prevalence of lateral laxity, patellar laxity, positive Lachman test and positive Drawer test compared with post-menarche dancers (p < 0.05).
(2) (The anterior drawer test has too low a sensitivity to rule out ACL injuries, and the pivot shift test is a bit too challenging to be performed reliably.)
The right lower extremity was also neurovascularly intact, and the right knee exam revealed a grade 2A Lachman maneuver (ACL injury with 5-10 mm translation and a firm endpoint), a grade 3 posterior drawer test (complete tear of PCL with >10 mm posterior tibial translation), and a grade 3 valgus stress test (MCL injury with 11-15 mm opening of the medial joint), with a presumptive positive dial maneuver on the right side at 30 and 90 degrees (consistent with PCL and posterolateral corner (PLC) injury).
The knee joints were still swollen, and the endpoint by manual posterior drawer test was not detected.
Preoperative examinations, including Anterior drawer test, Lachman test, Pivot-shift test were carried out for all patients.
We used Lachman test and anterior drawer test for knee laxity rate.
The results of physical examination were as follows: anterior drawer test, valgus stress test at 30 flexion, and McMurray findings were positive; posterior drawer test, varus stress test, external rotation recurvation test, quadriceps active test, posterolateral drawer test, and dial test were negative.
Poor <65 points Fair 66 to 81 points Fair-to-good 82 to 92 points Good-to-excellent 93 to 97 points Excellent 98 to 100 points Anterior drawer test was negative in 33 (97.0%) patients.
The posterior drawer test is the most accurate clinical test to diagnose PCL tears; however, posterior subluxation often cannot be elicited with this maneuver in the acute setting due to soft tissue swelling and pain [2].