Of course, animal rights advocates have long opposed the Draize Test, which they consider cruel to the lab animals used as subjects.
According to the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), a major protest campaign in the 1980s raised awareness among consumers and within the cosmetics industry about how harsh and inhumane the Draize Test could be for its unwitting subjects.
An extensive list of in vitro models that have been proposed as alternatives to the Draize test has been published (Bruner et al.
Weil and Scala (1971) determined that the numerical scores for the Draize test could not be reproduced in different laboratories.
In one of the turning points of the animal rights movement, he organized a 1980 protest against Revlon, Inc., the cosmetics industry "flagship." He inspired individuals from more than 400 groups to dress in rabbit costumes and march outside Revlon's corporate offices in opposition to the company's use of the Draize test. He ran full-page newspaper ads depicting bandaged white rabbits asking, "How many rabbits does Revlon blind for beauty's sake?"
Six months later Revlon initiated a research program at Rockefeller University in New York City to look for alternatives to the Draize test. Within months, other cosmetics companies contributed hundreds of thousands of dollars to similar programs, and the search for in vitro alternatives got seriously under way.
Of the 3 chemicals that were classified as non-irritants in the Draize test, only dodecane was classified correctly in all 3 test laboratories.
1 by the Draize test were predicted correctly in all 3 laboratories (Tab.
While it is known and accepted by regulators and industry that non-animal eye irritation tests may predict slightly higher or lower than the in vivo Draize test
, companies are not comfortable with what they consider the level of over-prediction seen in some cases.
"An alternative to the Draize test
, both ocular and dermal irritation levels can be measured objectively using the Irritection Assay System" Ms.
The Draize test
, which involves placing potential irritants into the eyes of rabbits to gauge potential reaction, has come under criticism in recent years.
The MultiCASE software comprises a model for eye irritation, developed from the results of 207 Draize tests