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Related to Downregulated: Up-regulation, Upregulate
Cell biology The reduction of a cell’s response to a hormone or other ligand by internalizing its cognate receptor and degrading it within a coated pit; downregulation is a mechanism by which receptors respond to an excess of ligands
Genetics The decrease of a gene’s transcriptional machinery usually by a DNA-binding protein that acts on a regulatory region


Development of a refractory or tolerant state consequent on repeated administration of a pharmacologically or physiologically active substance; often accompanied by an initial decrease in affinity of receptors for the agent and a subsequent diminution in the number of receptors.
References in periodicals archive ?
In Figure 3, red indicates the upregulated and green the downregulated mRNAs between the two lines.
Eight of the miRNAs were downregulated in BC cases--by 3.
Interestingly, we found that survivin is transcriptionally downregulated and proteasome-degraded by TIIA in an array of TRAIL-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines.
This analysis revealed three top-ranking pathways, which are listed in their respective order: complement and coagulation cascades (14 downregulated genes in the H group), systemic lupus erythematosus (14/16 downregulated genes in the H group) and ECM -receptor interactions (7 downregulated genes, including collagen, type IV, alpha 6 (COL4A6), tenascin C (TNC), secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2), COL1A1, CD44 molecule (CD44), and ribosomal protein L26 (RPL26), and 5 upregulated genes, including integrin, beta 6 (ITGB6), syndecan 4 (SDC4), agrin (AGRN), thrombospondin 4 (THBS4), BT.
GRHL2 overexpression was detected in several cancers; however, in certain subclasses of breast cancer, GRHL2 was downregulated (27, 28).
The first question was whether RbAp48 is downregulated in aged mice, and indeed, that turned out to be the case-there was a reduction of RbAp48 protein in the DG, lead author Elias Pavlopoulos, PhD, associate research scientist in neuroscience at CUMC said.
Betulinic acid (BA) and curcumin inhibited bladder cancer cell growth and downregulated specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors, and this was accompanied by decreased expression of EGFR mRNA and protein levels.
In contrast, the 5-HT protein transporter was downregulated in females (Aldridge et al.
100 genes were identified as being either up- or downregulated in node-negative breast cancer.
Philip Gold, chief of the clinical neuroendocrinology branch at the National Institute of Mental Health, re viewed research showing that the hypo thalamic pituitary axis is downregulated in chronic fatigue syndrome.
We found that key myeloid genes were upregulated in the cells, and that lymphoid-associated genes were downregulated," said Viatour.