(redirected from Downregulated)
Also found in: Dictionary.
Related to Downregulated: Up-regulation, Upregulate
Cell biology The reduction of a cell’s response to a hormone or other ligand by internalizing its cognate receptor and degrading it within a coated pit; downregulation is a mechanism by which receptors respond to an excess of ligands
Genetics The decrease of a gene’s transcriptional machinery usually by a DNA-binding protein that acts on a regulatory region


Development of a refractory or tolerant state consequent on repeated administration of a pharmacologically or physiologically active substance; often accompanied by an initial decrease in affinity of receptors for the agent and a subsequent diminution in the number of receptors.
References in periodicals archive ?
Meanwhile, 170 genes deregulated by ESE, and 55 genes deregulated by APE when tested alone, were not up- or downregulated by KJ.
2, the following GO annotations were revealed: 76 GO molecular functions were annotated with 239 genes, of which 149 were upregulated and 90 were downregulated; 141 GO biological processes were annotated with 234 genes, of which 83 were upregulated and 151 were downregulated; and 34 GO cellular components were annotated with 221 genes, of which 134 were upregulated and 87 were downregulated (Table 3 and Supplementary Table S1c).
For example, mtDNA damage has been noted in osteoarthritis along with downregulated Complexes I, II, and III, and 17 upregulated and 9 downregulated genes.
5B), being upregulated significantly within the first 6 h and then gradually downregulated to the original level 48 h after stimulation.
GRHL2 overexpression was detected in several cancers; however, in certain subclasses of breast cancer, GRHL2 was downregulated (27, 28).
Conversely, the levels of miR-200b and miR-19b were downregulated under the same experimental conditions (Dippold et al.
In contrast, other proapoptotic proteins such as nuclear factor-[kappa]B, cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and cleaved poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase levels were significantly downregulated in the COC-treated group when compared with the untreated control group.
Gene expression analysis determined the numbers and types of up-and downregulated genes in both cultured cells and adipose tissue, with those involved in inflammation being the most significantly upregulated.
Downregulated perilipin was thought to account for the increased lipolytic action of TNF[alpha] in differentiated adipocytes (Miyoshi et al.
Interestingly, these miRNAs have been found to be overexpressed in AIPC, but downregulated during androgen-dependent prostate cancers.
Members of the Cyp family of genes split into two separate clusters, some were downregulated (Figure 3E, H) and others were very markedly upregulated (Figure 3B, H).