RNA

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RNA

 
messenger RNA (mRNA) see ribonucleic acid.
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) see ribonucleic acid.
transfer RNA (tRNA) see ribonucleic acid.

RNA

Abbreviation for ribonucleic acid; Registered Nurse Anesthetist. For terms bearing this abbreviation, see subentries under ribonucleic acid

RNA

(är′ĕn-ā′)
n.
A nucleic acid present in all living cells and many viruses, consisting of a long, usually single-stranded chain of alternating phosphate and ribose units, with one of the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil bonded to each ribose molecule. RNA molecules are involved in protein synthesis and sometimes in the transmission of genetic information. Also called ribonucleic acid.

RNA

 Ribonucleic acid Molecular biology A polymer of ribonucleic acids that functions in coding, storage, transfer and translation of genetic information. See Antisense RNA, Catalytic RNA, Chromosomal RNA, Heterogenous nuclear RNA, Pre-mRNA, Ribosomal RNA, Transfer RNA.

RNA

Abbreviation for ribonucleic acid.

RNA

Abbrev. for ribonucleic acid. This molecule, in common with DNA and MITOCHONDRIAL DNA, carries coded instructions for the synthesis of specific proteins from AMINO ACIDS. RNA may be a double chain like DNA but in the cell usually exists as a single polynucleotide chain, like one strand of the double helix of DNA. Whereas in most cells DNA carries the permanent, inheritable code for cell reproduction, RNA most commonly acts as a transcriber or as MESSENGER RNA (mRNA) carrying the code elsewhere, as to the RIBOSOMES in cells where proteins are actually formed. In some viruses, however, the inherited code for replication occurs in the form of RNA. Transfer RNA (tRNA) picks up and carries amino acids to the ribosomes to be inserted in the correct sequence of the protein. Ribosomes contain ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins.RNA can take up complex three-dimensional configurations an can act as an enzyme with itself as substrate. It seems likely that RNA preceded DNA in evolution.

RNA (ribonucleic acid)

a NUCLEIC ACID generally composed of a single POLYNUCLEOTIDE CHAIN of RIBONUCLEOTIDES,which is found in cells of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. RNA is a vital component of PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, and occurs in three main forms:
  1. (a) MESSENGER RNA produced in TRANSCRIPTION and involved in transferring genetic information from DNA to RIBOSOMES;
  2. (b) RIBOSOMAL RNA forming a major structural component of the ribosomes;
  3. (c) TRANSFER RNA which acts as an ‘adaptor’ molecule and carries amino acids to the ribosomes to be inserted in the correct sequence during translation. RNA is also found in some viruses as the primary genetic material. Other types of RNA have regulatory roles; see, for example, ANTISENSE RNA; or processing roles, for example snRNA.

RNA

Abbreviation for ribonucleic acid.
References in periodicals archive ?
In Hunter's lab, psyllids were feeding on cuttings from trees resting in cups of liquid spiked with double-stranded RNA. Hunter was testing specific sequences that match crucial genes in the insect.
Viruses with bisegmented double-stranded RNA in pigs faeces.
The production of double-stranded RNA under the process results in vivo stability, thereby causing a considerable increase in potency compared to the intrinsically unstable dsRNA.
Levashina, "Silencing of Toll pathway components by direct injection of double-stranded RNA into Drosophila adult flies," Nucleic Acids Research, vol.
Optimization of acasp and [beta] actin double-stranded RNA concentration and phenotypic effects
[1.] Fire A, Xu S, Montgomery MK, Kostas SA, Driver SE, Mello CC, Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans, Nature 391:806-11 (1998)
RNA interference (RNAi) occurs after a long double-stranded RNA molecule (dsRNA) is introduced to a cell and is processed in the cytoplasm by a two-subunit RNAse III-family enzyme named Dicer, which catalyses the digestion of the dsRNA molecule into smaller, 21-23 nucleotide-long dsRNA fragments termed small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules.
The result is a double-stranded RNA fragment in the plant that can not be transformed into a protein.
Among their topics are surfacing the role of epigenetics in host-virus interaction, tools and techniques for producing double-stranded RNA and its application in managing plant viral diseases, viruses infecting rice and their transgenic control, virus-resistant transgenic tomato: current status and future prospects, and virus-induced gene silencing and its applications.
In the wake of the discovery of TLRs, it was historically postulated that antiviral immunity was mediated via TLR3 because this membrane-anchored receptor was essential to trigger the production of type 1 IFNs and the activation of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) when challenged with extracellular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) poly(I:C), as a viral surrogate [1].
Objective: Viral infection or retrotransposon expansion in the genome often result in production of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA).
When laced with insect gene fragments, the potato plants produced double-stranded RNA that if eat eaten was able to disable certain genes in the beetles.