dopamine

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dopamine

 [do´pah-mēn]
a compound produced by the decarboxylation of dopa; it is the direct precursor in the synthesis of norepinephrine and is also a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It is administered intravenously to correct hemodynamic imbalance in persons with shock because it increases blood pressure, especially systolic pressure, as well as urinary output; it is also used as a cardiac stimulant.

do·pa·mine (DM),

(dō'pă-mēn),
An intermediate in tyrosine metabolism and precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine; neurotransmitter is the peripheral and central nervous systems; depletion of dopamine produces Parkinson disease.

dopamine

/do·pa·mine/ (-mēn) a catecholamine formed in the body by the decarboxylation of dopa; it is an intermediate product in the synthesis of norepinephrine, and acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. The hydrochloride salt is used to correct hemodynamic balance in the treatment of shock and is also used as a cardiac stimulant.

dopamine

(dō′pə-mēn′)
n.
A monoamine neurotransmitter formed in the brain by the decarboxylation of dopa and essential to the normal functioning of the central nervous system. A reduction in its concentration within the brain is associated with Parkinson's disease.

dopamine

[dō′pəmin]
a naturally occurring sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitter that is the precursor of norepinephrine. It is produced in the substantia nigra and transmitted to the putamen and caudate nucleus. It has an inhibitory effect on movement. A depletion of dopamine produces the symptoms of rigidity, tremors, and bradykinesia that are characteristic of Parkinson's disease. It is available as an intravenously injectable drug. Dopamine has potent dopaminergic, beta-adrenergic, and alpha-adrenergic receptor activity. See also dopamine hydrochloride.

dopamine

Neurology A catecholamine hormone and neurotransmitter essential to CNS activity; it is involved motor control, cognition, and reward; abnormal dopamine levels occur in Parkinson's disease, paranoia, memory and concentration defects; dopamine may modulate endorphin levels, altering perception of pain and pleasure; it restricts prolactin, affecting libido See Biogenic amine, Catecholamine, Indolamine, Serotonin.

do·pa·mine

(DM) (dō'pă-mēn)
An intermediate in tyrosine metabolism and precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine.

dopamine

A monoamine NEUROTRANSMITTER and hormone with an adrenaline-like action. Dopamine is the principal neurotransmitter in the extrapyramidal system. It is formed in the brain from the amino acid tyrosine via dopa and the latter, in the form of levodopa is used to treat PARKINSON'S DISEASE. Dopamine is the precursor of noradrenaline. It is also concerned with mood, memory and food intake. Excess is associated with psychiatric disorders. Dopamine is converted into at least 30 other substances some of which are hallucinogenic. The drug is on the WHO official list.

dopamine

the decarboxylation product of DOPA. Formula: C8H11 O2 N.

Dopamine

A neurochemical made in the brain that is involved in many brain activities, including movement and emotion.

dopamine

a neurotransmitter, especially within the brain, in pathways related to the co-ordination of movement and to behaviour and emotion; deficiency of dopamine in the brain is associated with Parkinson's disease. Its secretion from the brain into the hypophysial portal blood vessels inhibits prolactin secretion from the anterior pituitary. Also, in the adrenal medulla it is a precursor of adrenaline and noradrenaline, and is itself released as a neurohormone.

dopamine

central nervous system neurotransmitter, found especially in substantia nigra of basal ganglia (i.e. caudate and lentiform nuclei) essential for normal movement; loss of dopamine transmission within substantia nigra is characteristic of parkinsonism (see Table 1)
Table 1: Effects of stimulation of alpha, beta and dopamine receptors
ReceptorActionStimulating drug
Alpha-1 (α1); postsynapticVasoconstriction; positive inotropism; antidiuresisAdrenaline +
Noradrenaline +++
Alpha-2 (α2); presynapticVasodilatation; inhibition of noradrenaline releaseAdrenaline +
Noradrenaline +++
Dopamine +
Alpha-2 (α2); postsynapticConstriction of coronary arteries; promotion of salt and water excretionAdrenaline +
Noradrenaline +++
Dopamine +
Beta-1 (β1); postsynapticPositive inotropism; chronotropism; renin releaseAdrenaline ++
Noradrenaline ++
Isoprenaline ++
Dopamine +
Beta-2 (β2); presynapticNoradrenaline release accelerated; positive inotropism; chronotropismAdrenaline +
Isoprenaline +++
Beta-2 (β2); postsynapticVasodilatation; relaxation of bronchial smooth muscleAdrenaline +
Isoprenaline +++
Dopamine1; postsynapticVasodilatation; diuresisDopamine ++
Dopamine1; presynapticInhibits noradrenaline releaseDopamine +

Plus signs indicate degree of effect.

dopamine (dōˑ·p·mēn),

n a neurochemical that supports fine motor activity, blood pressure, focus, inspiration, intuition, enthusiasm, and joy, among other functions.

do·pa·mine

(dō'pă-mēn)
An intermediate in tyrosine metabolism and precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine.

dopamine

(dō´pəmēn´),
n a sympathomimetic catecholamine used in the treatment of shock, hypotension, and low cardiac output.

dopamine

a compound, hydroxytyramine, produced by the decarboxylation of dopa; an intermediate product in the synthesis of norepinephrine. It is a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system; administered intravenously to correct hemodynamic imbalance in shock syndrome.

dopamine agonist
used to terminate pregnancy. See bromocriptine, cabergoline.
dopamine β-hydroxylase
enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of norepinephrine from dopamine. A copper-containing mono-oxygenase requiring vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
References in periodicals archive ?
This increase in DA concentrations evoked by caffeine is probably a result of inhibition of central adenosine activity, which inhibits activity of the dopaminergic system.
As increased DA in the CNS attenuated the decrease in mechanical efficiency during exercise (15), it is possible that the dopaminergic system adjusts motor responses that influence physical performance.
Involvement of the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic system in the antidepressant effect of FRA in FST
Studies suggest that the dopaminergic system may play a major role in the pathophysiology of depression.
12,60) The correlation between the blink rate and performance in the MWCST can also be understood in terms of involvement with the dopaminergic system.
These appeared to reflect the underlying involvement of different aspects of the dopaminergic system.
However, experimental studies suggest that other metals such as cadmium and arsenic could also interfere with the nervous system and that all four metals may influence the dopaminergic system in different ways (Lafuente et al.
The levels of exposure to cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic were determined in about 800 children together with a set of sensitive biomarkers of kidney function and of the dopaminergic system.
Combined exposure thus potentiated effects that appear to target the nigrostriatal dopaminergic systems.
That systemic administration of ATR can indeed directly affect brain dopaminergic systems was further confirmed in microdialysis experiments.
In 1983, Spear and Brake (113) brought attention to changes in dopaminergic systems during adolescence in a thorough review.
Subsequently, the responsible mesolimbic dopaminergic system may also degenerate later than the nigrostriatal system.