Etymology: Julius Donath, Austrian physician, 1870-1960; Karl Landsteiner, Austrian-American pathologist, 1868-1943
a rare blood disorder marked by hemolysis minutes or hours after exposure to cold. Systemic symptoms include the passage of dark urine, severe pain in the back and legs, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, and moderate reticulocytosis. Temporary hepatosplenomegaly and mild hyperbilirubinemia may follow the onset of an attack. The condition may occur with congenital or acquired syphilis, in which case antisyphilitic treatment is used. Also called paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria.