Their topics include the serial analysis of gene expression as a tool to analyze the cardiac transcriptome, in situ hybridization to study the localization of cardiac gene expression, mapping transcriptional start sites and in silico DNA footprinting
, and lintivirus-mediated gene expression.
Conventional methods for detecting DNA-binding proteins are electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)  (7), DNA footprinting
(8), ELISA (9), and Southwestern blotting (10).
Unlike DNA fingerprinting, which can highlight tiny discrepancies between the genetic material of two individuals, DNA footprinting
reveals where proteins stick to DNA.