A large percentage of magnesium is reabsorbed paracellularly in the thick ascending limb, with a smaller transcellular flux in the distal tubule
8 also demonstrated cloudy swelling of proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) and congestion of distal tubules
in rats when administrated APAP at dose of 750 mg/kg body weight per day for 7 days.
Kidney of the rabbitsintoxicated with the nitrate showed moderate tubular degeneration predominantly of the distal tubules
manifested with cellular swelling and fine granular appearance of the cytoplasm.
Proximal tubules were more in number and of larger diameter having low columnar cells with brush border, while distal tubules
were smaller in diameter, less in number, having cuboidal epithelium without brush border.
The protein contents as well as the general appearance of the renal tissues were approximately restored after pre-, post- and co-treatment of the same dose of the extract with cisplatin; the cells of the glomeruli were again densely stained nearly like those of the controls, and the cytoplasm of the proximal and distal tubules
The cortical structure along with proximal as well as distal tubules
are well organized (Figure-1).
Renin release is stimulated by hypovolaemia, hypotension or decreased sodium in the filtrate passing through the distal tubules
As mentioned previously, LLC-PK1 cells are considered to be of proximal tubular origin where as MDCK cells are related to the distal tubules
and collecting ducts (Gstraunthaler et al.
Renal biopsy typically reveals acute and/or chronic renal tubular injury (depending on time to diagnosis), calcium-phosphate crystal deposition in the distal tubules
and collecting ducts, and no other pattern of histologic injury.
In the distal tubules
, they increase the excretion of sodium and chloride by inhibiting the ion pumps that function in sodium and chloride reabsorption.
E-cadherin is not detected in the distal tubules
and the developing glomerulus (Figure 3b).
In an experimental attempt to identify early lesions, distal tubules
presented damage before other segments  while in human necropsies distal tubules
and the ascending limb have been described to be the most severely involved segments .