With increased radical stability, PBD coagents give better properties due to the suppression of competing reactions like beta scission, disproportionation
and homopolymerization (refs.
However, the difference in electrons density was found to be too small to justify a complete disproportionation
into 3+ and 5+ valence states of Bi.
The growing radical chains terminate either by joining of two chains (combination) or by abstracting an atom from one of them (disproportionation
However, at higher alkali concentration (pH [greater than] 11.6) some of the peroxide is consumed in the disproportionation
reaction to produce oxygen and water.
Recombination and disproportionation
of polymeric and persulfenyl radicals (ref.
in Charge-Transfer Salts by X-ray Crystallography, J.
Smalley, "Single-wall nanotubes produced by metal-catalyzed disproportionation
of carbon monoxide," Chemical Physics Letters, vol.
Alper, "Alkali-induced disproportionation
of palladium(II) tertiary phosphine complexes, [[L.sub.2]Pd[Cl.sub.2]], to LO and palladium(0).
Uwe, "Bismuth charge disproportionation
in semiconducting Ba[Pb.sub.x][Bi.sub.1-x][O.sub.3] studied by infrared reflection spectroscopy," Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, vol.
Enzymic xanthine oxidation yields superoxide radical anion and the disproportionation
of the latter by superoxide dismutase results in molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide occurrence :
The peroxide vulcanization accompanies side reactions such as chain scission and disproportionation
, which induce rapid consumption of the peroxide without formation of radicals, hence crosslinking efficiency is lowered [24, 25].
The main chemical precursors used in the CVD of films and coatings and the associated chemical reactions can be categorized into the following types of reactions: thermal decomposition (pyrolysis), reduction, oxidation, hydrolysis, nitridation, disproportionation
, and synthesis.