mindfulness may be an ameliorating factor, it is important to investigate the relation between dispositional
mindfulness and substance use so that we can further our understanding of both risk and protective factors for substance use.
Hypothesis 1: In Chinese college students dispositional
optimism will be positively correlated with both well-being and self-efficacy, and well-being will be positively correlated with self-efficacy.
optimism has been closely linked to positive affectivity, well-being and self-confidence (Marshall, Wortman, Kusulas, Hervig, & Vickers, 1992), while pessimism has been linked to the presence of negative affectivity, physical symptoms (Chang, 1998) and to pessimistic attributions of both negative and positive accounts in undergraduate students (Ahrens & Haaga, 1993) and at advanced teacher students (Haugen & Lund, 2002).
Understanding the dispositional
landscape of school environments is a complex process because the landscapes include extra role expectations that are not explicitly written.
In sum, the overall purpose of this study is to examine psychological characteristics of exercisers (behavioral regulations, dispositional
flow, and social physique anxiety) in terms of body mass index.
affect refers to an individual's tendency to respond to situations with a positive or negative emotional approach (Watson & Clark, 1984).
This shifts the ethics of encounter from epistemological to affective terms: in a word, it demands a dispositional
ethics that construes responsibility as responsiveness.
The importance of dispositional
factors on entrepreneurial intention was initially recognized decades ago (Gartner, 1988, Brockhaus, 1980) yet the research received little attention subsequently.
"Liking more means doing more: Dispositional
attitudes predict patterns of general action," said Justin Hepler, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
However, to our knowledge, the present study is the first to empirically examine dispositional
humility from an attachment theory perspective.
Snyder developed two scales: the State Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1996) and the Adult Dispositional
Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991).