(1) Two or more cases of a relatively uncommon event or disease related in time and/or place perceived to be greater than expected by chance (2) An unusual aggregation, real or perceived, of health events that are grouped together in time and space, which is reported to a public health department
With regard to disease cluster investigations, there are several problems inherent in global analyses that have not always been addressed and have led to increasing concern among medical geographers, spatial statisticians, and to a lesser extent, epidemiologists (Openshaw 1984; Rothman 1990; Getis and Ord 1992; Walter 1992; Anselin 1995; Ord and Getis 1995; Getis and Ord 1996; Unwin et al.
Once avian flu enters a country, prophylaxis of a population near a disease cluster, closing schools and workplaces, and pre-vaccinating children under age 16 would reduce the number of cases but would not actually prevent the spread of the virus.
Because sexual transmission data are not captured in the national enteric disease surveillance systems of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), we queried the enteric disease cluster management database of the CDC Outbreak Response and Prevention Branch (ORPB; Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Disease) for all US shigellosis clusters during January 2011-December 2015 (18-21).
Ali Tumama, Infectious Disease Cluster Head of DOH 12 said that for 2016 the health office recorded 17 cases of human rabies and more or less 10 cases for the first quarter of 2017 alone while only 10 cases were recorded in 2015.
Fourth, the SD ellipses from the OD analysis, coupled with complementary results from R and Moran's I values, yielded information on the direction of spread in a disease cluster that can be used to inform contact tracing and the design of quarantine measures.