For instance, disconfirmation bias reflects that people pay greater attention to information that negates their perspective rather than to that which supports their pre-existing views (Edwards & Smith, 1996; Lord, Ross, & Lepper, 1979).
A disconfirmation bias in the evaluation of arguments.
Studies on motivated reasoning have consistently found that messages that are congruent with prior beliefs have stronger effects on judgments compared with incongruent messages (i.e., disconfirmation bias
; Edwards & Smith, 1996; Lord et al., 1979).
Difficulty in changing perceptions is a human frailty--we are prone to confirmation or disconfirmation bias
, and use evidence to shore up our beliefs rather than to embrace the necessary change.
disconfirmation bias, belief perseverance, and cognitive consistency.
Smith, A Disconfirmation Bias in the Evaluation of Arguments, 71 J.