Diphyllobothrium latum


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Di·phyl·lo·both·ri·um la·'tum

the broad or broad fish tapeworm, a species that causes diphyllobothriasis, found in humans and fish-eating mammals in many parts of northern Europe, Japan and elsewhere in Asia, and in Scandinavian populations of the American north central states and in north American Inuit populations; it often has 3000-4000 segments, broader than long; the head has typical bothria characteristic of the genus.
A tapeworm that parasitises freshwater fish of temperate zones in the Northern hemisphere—D pacificum infestation occurs in marine fish off Peru
Definitive hosts Humans, domestic pets, other mammals
D latum is the largest known vertebrate tapeworm, measuring 10 meters in length with 4000 proglottids—most distal proglottids disintegrate, releasing eggs into the faeces; these mature and hatch into ciliated coracium, which are ingested by the first intermediate host, an aquatic arthropod, the copepod, and then ingested by a second intermediate host, a freshwater fish—e.g., salmon, trout, and whitefish; the eggs develop into procercoid larvae in the fish muscle and viscera and are eaten by man as raw fish and the cycle continues
Management Niclosamide
Enlarge picture
DIPHYLLOBOTHRIUM LATUM: Passed in patient's stool.

Diphyllobothrium latum

A species that is native to Scandinavia, the Baltics, and western Russia, and is now found in North America, esp. the Pacific Northwest, that infests fish and mammals. The adult lives in the intestine of fish-eating mammals, including humans. It is the largest tapeworm infesting humans and may reach a length of 50 to 60 ft (15.2 to 18.3 m); the average is 20 ft (6.1 m). The eggs develop into ciliated larvae that are eaten by small crustaceans called copepods. The larvae pass through several stages in the copepods and develop further after the copepods are eaten by fish, finally encysting in fish muscle. People acquire the infection by eating raw or poorly cooked fish that contains cysts. Infection can be prevented by thoroughly cooking all freshwater fish or by keeping the fish frozen at -10°C (14°F) for 48 hr before eating. Synonym: broad tapeworm; fish tapeworm See: illustration

Symptoms

Patients often report abdominal pain, weight loss, digestive disorders, progressive weakness, and symptoms of pernicious anemia because the worm absorbs ingested vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract.

Treatment

Praziquantel is used to treat the infestation.

illustration

Diphyllobothrium latum

A tapeworm having intermediate hosts in the freshwater crustacean Cyclops and then in fish. The worm is acquired by humans through eating fish. Infestation is fairly common in Finland and Scandinavia.
References in periodicals archive ?
Mitochondrial genomes of the human broad tapeworms Diphyllobothrium latum and Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae).
Diphyllobothrium latum and Demodex canis infection in a dog from Nagpur (M.S.)- A Case Report.
Epidemiology of Diphyllobothrium latum infection in Japan, with special reference to infection of cherry salmon [in Japanese].
No caso da Parasitologia, a captacao de recursos e condicao essencial para o desenvolvimento de certos projetos basicos, em um pais em desenvolvimento como o nosso, haja vista o recrudescimento do calazar urbano e sua disseminacao em caes; a ocorrencia crescente de malaria em areas de diversao ("camping"); a possibilidade de transmissao da doenca de Chagas em caldo de cana; o encontro de vermes, ate entao exoticos (Diphyllobothrium latum) em peixes servidos como refeicao; a persistencia da pediculose, sobretudo em criancas; a proliferacao de mosquitos Aedes nos domicilios e peridomicilios, etc.
In humans, this form of anemia can also be caused by infection with the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum. Though pernicious anemia caused by parasites has not been documented in livestock, it is possible that nutritional deficiencies in livestock may also be caused or aggravated by worm infections.
* The growing popularity of eating sushi has caused a rise in human infection from the broad fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium latum).
Intestinal parasites, such as the broad fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium latum), may be identified occasionally as the source of vitamin [B.sub.12] deficiency.
Niclosamide is the first-line agent for most cestode infections in humans (Diphyllobothrium latum, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium).
There were 16 reports of Hymenolepis diminuta, 14 od Diphyllobothrium latum, and 11 of Dipylidium caninum.
Nevertheless, infection with Diphyllobothrium latum tapeworms was not considered a possible differential diagnosis.
Another case in a student from Trujillo, Peru was erroneously reported as having been caused by Diphyllobothrium latum (Linnaeus, 1758) (4).