In these situations, maturation of both the male and female gametangia often occur at the same time and facilitates more successful fertilisation, particularly in dioicous spe cies (Longton and Greene 1967, 1969; Imura and Iwatsuki 1989).
Sixty per cent of bryophytes are considered dioicous (Wyatt and Anderson 1984).
This was found to occur in Japan where investigation into 81 mosses, 61 dioicous and 20 monoicous, found the monoicous mosses had much higher rates of fertilisation than the dioicous species (Une et al.
. Perichaetia lateral on stem; inner perichaetial leaves straight, not plicate, ovate-lanceolate, erect, margin entire or slightly sinuate, apex abruptly and shortly to longly acuminate, costa long and single, almost reaching the apex, cells linear, thin-walled, smooth; vaginula naked.