Various protozoa and parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum, Dientamoeba
fragilis, Blastocysts, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Giardia intestinalis can lead to symptoms of asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy/intolerance, mast cell activation, anaphylaxis, and other inflammatory conditions.
Active ulcerative colitis associated with low prevalence of Blastocystis and Dientamoeba
(ozellikle granuler form), Dientamoeba
Direct sequencing and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the isolate of the flagellated trichomonad identified from this investigation is more phylogenetically related to H meleagridis than Tetratrichomonas gallinarum, Tritrichomonas foetus, and Dientamoeba
Less common parasites include Entamoeba Cystoisospora belli, Dientamoeba
fragilis, Strongloides stercoralis, and microsporidia.
(%) positive results available intestinal parasites 217 96 (44.2) * Tuberculosis 181 49 (27.1) ([dagger]) Malaria 52 7 (13.5) Hepatitis A virus 161 14 (8.7) Hepatitis B virus 233 6 (2.6) Syphilis 215 0 ([dagger] [double dagger]) Hepatitis C virus 219 0 ([dagger] [double dagger]) HiV 218 1 (0.5) ([double dagger]) * Evidence of infection with [greater than or equal to]1 of the following: Giardia intestinalis flagellates (n = 75, 34.6%), Blastocystis hominis protozoa (n = 34, 15.7%), Hymenolepsis nana tapeworms (n = 2, 0.9%), Dientamoeba
fragilis protozoa (n = 2, 0.9%), Ascaris lumbncoides roundworms (n = 2, 0.5%), or Tnchuns trichiura roundworms (0.5%).
diff-epi, Cryptosporidium parvum, platform Giardia intestinalis, Dientamoeba
fragalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia entercolitica, STEC, Norovirus GI, Norovirus Gil, Adenovirus, Rotavirus, Astrovirus, Sapovirus * C.
intestinalis, which was present in 19% of children, identified pathogens included Blastocystis hominis (10% of children), Dientamoeba
fragilis (5%), and Entamoeba histolytica (1%).
Other identified species, generally considered nonpathogenic or of indeterminate significance, were intestinal protozoans or stramenopiles: Blastocystis hominis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Dientamoeba
fragilis, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanii, and lodomoeba butchlii.