diaphragmatic breathing


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breathing

 [brēth´ing]
ventilation (def. 2).
diaphragmatic breathing diaphragmatic respiration.
a type of breathing exercise that patients are taught to promote more effective aeration of the lungs, consisting of moving the diaphragm downward during inhalation and upward with exhalation.
frog breathing (glossopharyngeal breathing) respiration unaided by the primary or ordinary accessory muscles of respiration, the air being “swallowed” rapidly into the lungs by use of the tongue and the muscles of the pharynx; used by patients with chronic muscle paralysis to augment their vital capacity.
intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) see intermittent positive pressure breathing.
mouth breathing breathing through the mouth instead of the nose, usually because of some obstruction in the nasal passages.
breathing pattern, ineffective a nursing diagnosis approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as inspiration and/or expiration that does not provide adequate ventilation. Etiologic and contributing factors include disorders of the nervous system in which there is abnormal response to neural stimulation, as in spinal cord injury; impairment of musculoskeletal function, as in trauma to the chest; pain and discomfort associated with deep breathing, as after abdominal or thoracic surgery; fatigue and diminished energy level; inadequate lung expansion, as in poor body posture and positioning; inappropriate response to stress, as in hyperventilation; inflammation of respiratory structures; and tracheobronchial obstruction.

Subjective symptoms include reports of dyspnea, shortness of breath, pain associated with breathing, complaints of dizziness, and previous episodes of emotional or physical stress or fear and anxiety. Objective symptoms include increased respiratory rate and changes in depth of respirations, fremitus, abnormal arterial blood gases, nasal flaring, orthopnea or assumption of the three-point position, in which the patient sits down and elevates the shoulders by stiffening each arm and pushing downward with the hands on the chair or bed, use of accessory muscles of respiration, increased anteroposterior diameter of chest (barrel chest), and altered chest excursion.

The goal of nursing intervention is to help the patient experience improved gas exchange by using a more effective breathing pattern. This might include teaching appropriate breathing exercises and proper use of accessory muscles of respiration, and encouraging body posture that maximizes expansion of the lungs. If postoperative pain is a contributing factor, providing support of the operative site to reduce strain during coughing or moving about could encourage deeper respirations and a more normal breathing pattern. If a causative factor is stress with resultant hyperventilation or some other ineffective breathing pattern, the patient may need help in developing more beneficial coping mechanisms such as relaxation techniques.
pursed-lip breathing a breathing technique in which air is inhaled slowly through the nose and then exhaled slowly through pursed lips. This type of breathing is often used by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to prevent small airway collapse.
breathing-related sleep disorder any of several disorders characterized by sleep disruption due to some sleep-related breathing problem, resulting in excessive sleepiness or insomnia. Included are central and obstructive sleep apnea syndromes (see adult sleep apnea).

breathing

(breth'ing)
The act of inhaling and exhaling air. See: chest; respiration

abdominodiaphragmatic breathing

A controlled method of breathing in which the diaphragm is used for inspiration and the abdominal muscles for expiration. This technique improves exertional dyspnea, esp. in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Synonym: diaphragmatic breathing

apneustic breathing

An abnormal breathing pattern marked by prolonged inspiration followed by an inspiratory pause. This is usually associated with brainstem injuries.

assisted breathing

Any technique that improves respiration. Such breathing includes the provision of supplemental oxygen, bag-valve-mask ventilation, noninvasive ventilation, mechanical ventilation, and mouth-to-mouth ventilation.

asthmatic breathing

Harsh breathing with prolonged wheezing heard throughout expiration.

ataxic breathing

An irregular, uncoordinated breathing pattern common in infants.

belly breathing

Abdominal respiration.

Biot breathing

See: Biot breathing

bronchial breathing

Bronchial sounds.

Cheyne-Stokes breathing

See: Cheyne-Stokes respiration

continuous positive-pressure breathing

A method of mechanically assisted pulmonary inflation. A device administers air or oxygen to the lungs under a continuous pressure that is always greater than zero.
Synonym: continuous positive-pressure ventilation

diaphragmatic breathing

Abdominodiaphragmatic breathing.

frog breathing

A respiratory pattern in which the air in the mouth and pharynx is forced into the lungs by gulping and swallowing it. This may be observed in patients whose respiratory muscles are weak or paralyzed.

glossopharyngeal breathing

A technique of breathing in which the patient with inspiratory muscle weakness increases the volume of air breathed in by taking several gulps of air, closing the mouth, and forcing air into the lungs.

high-altitude periodic breathing

Brief episodes of central apnea that occur in hypoxemic environments, esp. in elevations that are 13,000 ft or more above sea level.

inspiratory resistive breathing

Inspiration with an added workload to increase the strength and endurance of the inspiratory muscles.

intermittent positive-pressure breathing

Abbreviation: IPPB
A mechanical method for assisting pulmonary ventilation with a device that administers air or oxygen for the inflation of the lungs under positive pressure. Exhalation is usually passive.
Synonym: intermittent positive-pressure ventilation

Kussmaul breathing

See: Kussmaul, Adolph

mouth breathing

Inhaling and exhaling through the oral cavity instead of the nose. It occurs in people who have abnormal facial bone structure, as well as in individuals with nasal or sinus congestion. It has been associated with and may cause developmental abnormalities of the facial structure, esp. elongation of the facial bones.

periodic breathing

An irregular respiratory pattern marked by alternating periods of rapid and slow respirations and by apneic periods lasting 15 sec or less. It is a commonly observed breathing pattern in neonates and infants and in some individuals having sleep apnea.

pursed-lip breathing

An expiratory maneuver in which the patient exhales through puckered lips to slow expiratory flow and to create slight back pressure. This action may prevent premature closure of intrapulmonary airways, esp. in the patient with chronic obstructive lung disease.

shallow breathing

Breathing in which the volume of inspired and expired air is diminished (e.g., 200 ml per breath in adults). It is common in elderly patients, patients with rib or pleural pain, or restrictive lung diseases.

yogic breathing

Pranayama.
References in periodicals archive ?
Diaphragmatic breathing trains the patient on using the diaphragm instead of the accessory muscles of the chest to achieve maximum inhalation.
Statistically significant changes occurred in respiratory rates and skin temperatures during the diaphragmatic breathing session; respiratory rates and peripheral skin temperatures during progressive muscle relaxation session; respiratory and pulse rates, and peripheral skin temperatures during the autogenic sessions.
Characteristics of chronic hyperventilation can include: thoracic or upper chest breathing instead of diaphragmatic breathing; breathing through the mouth; frequent yawning or sighing; and a respiratory rate of over 15 breaths per minute.
Tai Chi is a form of exercise that focuses on controlled movements combined with diaphragmatic breathing and relaxation while maintaining good posture (Hall et al 2009).
The emphasis lies on diaphragmatic breathing, the right way to breathe from the stomach.
Men in the stress management group met with a clinical psychologist and were taught simple behavioral techniques, including diaphragmatic breathing and relaxing guided imagery and cognitive therapy.
The bulk of the book focuses on techniques for relieving the physical symptoms of anxiety, for managing the anxious mind, and for managing anxious behavior--ranging from diaphragmatic breathing and self-talk, to mindfulness, muscle relaxation, and "plan to panic" strategies--to help users learn to train their brain, manage stress, and regain control of their lives.
Teach patients how to focus on diaphragmatic breathing by concentrating on the abdomen rising with each inhalation and relaxing with the exhalation.
* Position patients upright so they can achieve optimal lung capacity * Teach patients breathing exercises, such as diaphragmatic breathing, altering breathing rhythm, and pursed lip breathing.
One of the most effective techniques is controlled breathing, which involves switching from shallow "chest breathing" to deep diaphragmatic breathing. To learn this calming skill, lie on your back and place your hand on your stomach, just below the navel.
Encouraging activity, facilitating diaphragmatic breathing and splinting the wound for coughing, this latex-free support moves with the patient to increase activity and decrease post-op complications.
It was found that the procedure was effective for the reduction of the frequency, intensity, and duration of the symptoms from the training of the diaphragmatic breathing. In all the cases, this reduction increased with the training of the muscular relaxation.