nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining
The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine
triphosphate nick-end labelling method was used to evaluate neuronal apoptosis.
It is worth mentioning that in the beginning of PCR the first nucleotides, incorporated in a created strand of DNA, are deoxyuridine
nucleotides with 5' radical groups.
DNA fragmentation was evaluated using our terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine
triphosphate-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay (Boehringer Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany), as reported previously .
In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of ebselen in protecting the sciatic nerve against I/R injury, using biochemical (malondialdehyde, MDA; nitric oxide, NO; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidase, GPx; and catalase, CAT), immunohistochemical (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated deoxyuridine
triphosphate nick end-labeling, TUNEL; inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS; and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA), and histopathological analyses.
The PCR mixture consisted of SYBR[R] Green PCR Master Mix, which includes DNA polymerase, SYBR[R] Green I Dye, deoxynucleotide triphosphates including deoxyuridine
triphosphate, PCR buffer, 10 pmol forward and reverse primers, and cDNA of samples in a total volume of 20 [micro]L.
Folate is an essential nutrient acting as methyl donor for conversion of deoxyuridine
monophosphate (dUMP)to deoxythymidine monophosphate required for DNA synthesis and repair.
Mutations are heritable changes in the DNA, can be either naturally occurring or man-made, and form the basis of much genetic variation , there are three main types of mutation: Substitution, Insertion and Deletion, mutagen is distinguished into chemical mutagen such as 5-bromo- deoxyuridine
, colchicine and 2, 4 Dinitroaniline  and, physical mutagen such as UV, X-radiation and Gamma rays [27,28] and biological mutagen such as Helicobacter pylori bacterium .
In folate pathway mechanism deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) (dTMP) is produced from deoxyuridine
monophosphate (dUMP) by oxidation of tetrahydrofolate to dihydrofolate catalysed by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) (Hyde 2005; Abali et al.
In this reaction, one carbon group of the 5,10-MTHF is transferred to a molecule called deoxyuridine
monophosphate (dUMP), resulting in the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) and dihydrofolate (DHF).
The service also offers the ability to incorporate a range of modifications, including 5' amino, 5' biotin, 5' or internal deoxylnosine, 5' or internal deoxyUridine
, and 5' phosphorylation.
A further method that can limit contamination is where the amplicon can be inactivated by incorporating deoxyuridine
(dUTP) instead of dTTP in the PCR assay, so that any amplicons that may contaminate subsequent assays are cleaved by uracil-N-glycosylase (9).