nucleotide

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nucleotide

 [noo´kle-o-tīd]
any of a group of compounds obtained by hydrolysis of nucleic acids, consisting of a purine or pyrimidine base linked to a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), which in turn is esterified with phosphoric acid.
cyclic n's those in which the phosphate group bonds to two atoms of the sugar forming a ring, as in cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, which act as intracellular second messengers.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

nu·cle·o·tide

(nū'klē-ō-tīd),
Originally a combination of a (nucleic acid) purine or pyrimidine, one sugar (usually ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphoric group; by extension, any compound containing a heterocyclic compound bound to a phosphorylated sugar by an N-glycosyl link (for example, adenosine monophosphate, NAD+). For individual nucleotides see specific names.
Synonym(s): mononucleotide
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

nucleotide

(no͞o′klē-ə-tīd′, nyo͞o′-)
n.
Any of a group of compounds consisting of a nucleoside combined with a phosphate group and constituting the units that make up DNA and RNA molecules.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

nu·cle·o·tide

(nū'klē-ō-tīd)
A combination of a (nucleic acid) purine or pyrimidine, one sugar (usually ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphoric group.
Synonym(s): mononucleotide.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

nucleotide

A molecule formed from the bonding of a purine or a pyrimidine base with a sugar and a mono-, di- or tri-phosphate group. Compare NUCLEOSIDE. Four different nucleotides may polymerize to form DNA. They are 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate; 2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate; 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate; and 2'-deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate. These lengthy names are commonly abbreviated to dATP, dGTP, dCTP and dTTP. Even this is too clumsy when printing out the sequence of nucleotides in a length of DNA. In that case they are abbreviated to A, G, C and T (for adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine). In RNA the sugar is not 2'-deoxyribose, but ribose itself. Also one of the RNA bases differs from that in DNA. Thymine is replaced by uracil. So the nucleotides of RNA are adenosine 5'-triphosphate; guanosine 5'-triphosphate; cytidine 5'-triphosphate; and uridine 5'-triphosphate. These are abbreviated to ATP, GTP, CTP and UTP or simply A, G, C and U.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
Nucleotideclick for a larger image
Fig. 232 Nucleotide . Basic units of (a) deoxyribose sugar, (b) phosphate. Each carbon atom is numbered (1 prime, 2 prime, etc).
Nucleotideclick for a larger image
Fig. 233 Nucleotide . Linkage of the three nucleotide elements.

nucleotide

a complex organic molecule forming the basic unit of NUCLEIC ACIDS, with a structure made up of three components: a pentose sugar (ribose, or deoxyribose with one less oxygen atom), an organic base (PURINE type: ADENINE and GUANINE; or PYRIMIDINE type: CYTOSINE, THYMINE and URACIL) and a phosphate group (see Fig. 232 ). The three elements are linked together by two condensation reactions between the 1 sugar carbon and a base forming a NUCLEOSIDE, and the 5' sugar carbon and the phosphate (see Fig. 233 ). The nucleotides are formed into POLYNUCLEOTIDE CHAINS.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Nucleotide

Any of a group of organic molecules that link together to form the building blocks of DNA or RNA.
Mentioned in: Myotonic Dystrophy
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Quantification of MALDI-TOF-MS signals requires low background and clear peak separation; therefore, use of deoxynucleotide triphosphates and dideoxynucleotide triphosphates for addition of one or two bases, respectively, producing mass differences of ~300 Da, is a prerequisite for reproducible results.
However, template alone is not sufficient to carry out PCR, and the students can be asked about what is required for a PCR reaction as an exam question; primers, deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs), and a thermostable DNA polymerase are also needed.
The first reactions produce deoxynucleotide triphosphates that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The PCR reagents (Abacus Diagnostica) calculated for a 30-[micro]L reaction (buffer containing 10 mmol/L Tris and 50 mmol/L KCI, pH 8.3, 5.5 mmol/L Mg[Cl.sub.2], 0.32 mmol/L deoxynucleotide triphosphates, 1 g/L BSA), target-specific (0.5 [micro]mol/L primers, 12 nmol/L label probe, 30 nmol/L quencher probe) and IAC-specific (0.15 [micro]mol/L primers, 10 nmol/L label probe, 100 nmol/L quencher probe) oligonucleotides, and 10 000 copies of the IAC were dispensed onto the plastic reaction chips.
Amplifications contained 1.25 U Taq DNA polymerase (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), 3 mmol/L [MgCl.sub.2], 2.5 mmol/L deoxynucleotide triphosphates (Invitrogen), and 0.2 pmol/L of primers EEgrolF and EEgro2R (8) (Table 1).
Most of these methods use similar reaction sequences consisting of PCR amplification of the DNA containing the positions of interest for the genome variation, removal of residual deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs), and finally, primer extension to generate allele-specific products of DNA markers.
The PCR mixture contained 0.5 [micro]L of 10x PCR buffer, 0.05 mM deoxynucleotide triphosphates, 0.05 /,M forward primer and 0.25 [micro]M reverse primer (i.e., asymmetric PCR), 0.04 [micro]M each probe, 1.3 M betaine, 2 mM Mg[Cl.sub.2], 0.025 U/[micro]L Taq DNA polymerase (Promega), and [H.sub.2]O to 5 [micro]L.
Reaction mixtures included 2.5 [micro]L of Optimase 10x PCR reaction buffer + magnesium (Transgenomic), 2.5 [micro]L of 2 mM deoxynucleotide triphosphates,1 [micro]L each of 10 [micro]M forward and reverse primer, 0.2 [micro]L of Optimase polymerase (Transgenomic), 100 ng of extracted DNA, and water to a final volume of 25 [micro]L.