nucleotide

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nucleotide

 [noo´kle-o-tīd]
any of a group of compounds obtained by hydrolysis of nucleic acids, consisting of a purine or pyrimidine base linked to a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), which in turn is esterified with phosphoric acid.
cyclic n's those in which the phosphate group bonds to two atoms of the sugar forming a ring, as in cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, which act as intracellular second messengers.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

nu·cle·o·tide

(nū'klē-ō-tīd),
Originally a combination of a (nucleic acid) purine or pyrimidine, one sugar (usually ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphoric group; by extension, any compound containing a heterocyclic compound bound to a phosphorylated sugar by an N-glycosyl link (for example, adenosine monophosphate, NAD+). For individual nucleotides see specific names.
Synonym(s): mononucleotide
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

nucleotide

(no͞o′klē-ə-tīd′, nyo͞o′-)
n.
Any of a group of compounds consisting of a nucleoside combined with a phosphate group and constituting the units that make up DNA and RNA molecules.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

nu·cle·o·tide

(nū'klē-ō-tīd)
A combination of a (nucleic acid) purine or pyrimidine, one sugar (usually ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphoric group.
Synonym(s): mononucleotide.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

nucleotide

A molecule formed from the bonding of a purine or a pyrimidine base with a sugar and a mono-, di- or tri-phosphate group. Compare NUCLEOSIDE. Four different nucleotides may polymerize to form DNA. They are 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate; 2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate; 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate; and 2'-deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate. These lengthy names are commonly abbreviated to dATP, dGTP, dCTP and dTTP. Even this is too clumsy when printing out the sequence of nucleotides in a length of DNA. In that case they are abbreviated to A, G, C and T (for adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine). In RNA the sugar is not 2'-deoxyribose, but ribose itself. Also one of the RNA bases differs from that in DNA. Thymine is replaced by uracil. So the nucleotides of RNA are adenosine 5'-triphosphate; guanosine 5'-triphosphate; cytidine 5'-triphosphate; and uridine 5'-triphosphate. These are abbreviated to ATP, GTP, CTP and UTP or simply A, G, C and U.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
Nucleotideclick for a larger image
Fig. 232 Nucleotide . Basic units of (a) deoxyribose sugar, (b) phosphate. Each carbon atom is numbered (1 prime, 2 prime, etc).
Nucleotideclick for a larger image
Fig. 233 Nucleotide . Linkage of the three nucleotide elements.

nucleotide

a complex organic molecule forming the basic unit of NUCLEIC ACIDS, with a structure made up of three components: a pentose sugar (ribose, or deoxyribose with one less oxygen atom), an organic base (PURINE type: ADENINE and GUANINE; or PYRIMIDINE type: CYTOSINE, THYMINE and URACIL) and a phosphate group (see Fig. 232 ). The three elements are linked together by two condensation reactions between the 1 sugar carbon and a base forming a NUCLEOSIDE, and the 5' sugar carbon and the phosphate (see Fig. 233 ). The nucleotides are formed into POLYNUCLEOTIDE CHAINS.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Nucleotide

Any of a group of organic molecules that link together to form the building blocks of DNA or RNA.
Mentioned in: Myotonic Dystrophy
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Peak height is proportional to the number of deoxynucleotide triphosphates incorporated.
Extension is generally achieved by the action of a polymerase that adds a deoxynucleotide, followed by detection of a fluorescent or chemiluminescent signal; the cycle is then repeated.
The first reactions produce deoxynucleotide triphosphates that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The PCR mixture was prepared in a final volume of 20 [micro]L and contained 10 ng of bisulfite modified templates, 1X PCR buffer, 2.5 mmol/L Mg[Cl.sub.2], 200 nmol/L each primer, 200 [micro]mol/L deoxynucleotide triphosphate, 5 [micro]mol/L SYTO 9, and 0.5 U HotStar Taq (Qiagen).
Each 10l PCR reaction consisted of 1l of 10X PCR buffer with Magnesium chloride (MgCl2), 0.8l 2mM deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs), 0.2l of 5U Taq DNA polymerase enzyme (Fermentas, Lithuania), 0.3l of 20M of each forward and reverse primers, and 2l of 40ng/ lDNA.
Final reagent concentration was 10 pmol for each primer, 200 [micro]M for each deoxynucleotide triphosphate, 1 U of Ampli-Taq Gold DNA Polymerase (Applied Biosystems, Roche Molecular System, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA), and 1x PCR buffer.
Unless otherwise noted, amplification reactions were in a 25-[micro]L volume using a master mix containing 1X Taq polymerase buffer (Promega, Madison, Wis), 0.05 U/[micro]L of Taq polymerase (Promega), 0.2 mmol/L deoxynucleotide triphosphate mix (Promega), 1.5 mmol/L Mg[Cl.sub.2] (Promega), and 1 [micro]mol/L each of forward and reverse primers (synthesized by Research Genetics, Huntington, Ala).
Copy number assessment by competitive PCR with limiting deoxynucleotide triphosphates and high-resolution melting.ClinChem2015;61:724-33.
Amplification was conducted in 50-[micro]L volumes that contained 5 [micro]L of DNA, 30 [micro]L of distilled water, 10 [micro]L of 5x Taq buffer (Roche, Mannheim, Germany), 3 [micro]L of 25 mmol/L Mg[Cl.sub.2] (Roche), 1 [micro]L of 10 mmol/L deoxynucleotide triphosphates (Roche), 0.25 [micro]L of each primer (100 [micro]M), and 0.5 [micro]L (5 U/mL) of Taq polymerase (Roche).
2001a, 2001b) were PCR-amplified in a 300-[micro]L reaction containing 1x PCR Buffer A (Promega, Madison, WI, USA), 2 mM Mg[Cl.sub.2] (Promega), 160 [micro]M each deoxynucleotide triphosphate (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA, USA), 0.4 [micro]M M13 primers (5'-GTT TTC CCA GTC ACG ACG TTG and 5'-GCG GAT AAC AAT TTC ACA CAG GA), and 1.25 units Taq polymerase (Promega).
The amplification was performed with 20 [micro]L of extracted DNA, 200 [micro]mol/L of each deoxynucleotide triphosphate, 100 nmol/L of each primer, and 2 units of Taq DNA polymerase (Amplitaq, Perkin-Elmer Cetus, Norwalk, Conn).
We have found that restricting the deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) concentration is a more convenient and robust way to automatically limit PCR for precise relative quantification.