demographic transition

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demographic transition

a theory of demography which states that, as a nation industrializes, it goes through a series of populational changes, starting with a decline in infant and adult mortality and followed later by a reduction in birth rate. The time lag between the decline in deaths and births produces a rapid population growth in ‘developing’ nations. In ‘developed’ nations births and deaths become approximately equal, giving a stable population structure.
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Others address the individual and society, with articles on skin color and colorism and the development of transgender studies in sociology; demography, including the second demographic transition theory, and social structure, adversity, toxic stress, and intergenerational poverty; urban and rural community sociology, including race, crime, and justice, and competing approaches to gentrification and growing income inequality; and the social safety net after welfare reform in terms of household dynamics.
The decline in fertility in the ten CEE countries can be explained by the demographic transition theory and the new social and economic conditions in this region after the fall of the communism.
The declining levels of mortality and increasing longevity discussed above have been accompanied by fertility declines in line with classical demographic transition theory (e.g., [29, 30]).
According to the demographic transition theory, we have reached the fourth stage of low birth rate and high mortality.
Demographic transition theory describes an ideal pattern of change, from pre-modern states of high fertility and high mortality to post-industrial states of low fertility and low mortality (Thompson, 1929; Notestein, 1945).
That is, the makers of demographic transition theory were mostly men, and the subject of the theory, the figure that inaugurates the demographic transition is "Man." With this theory, demography also relied on the Orientalist gestures of Malthus's essay.
Eberstadt notes these four trends as exceptions to the demographic transition theory that predicts declining mortality rates as a society develops, followed by a decline in fertility rates sometime later.
First, classic demographic transition theory has failed to explain why population growth continues, often in the face of other indicators of economic development and despite falling fertility rates in many countries (Greenhalgh, 1995; Handwerker, 1986).
Until the 1960s, the demographic transition theory remained the dominant paradigm in demography.

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