These successes were the result of months of a fierce attack on the democratic movement
as well as human rights and the democratic process.
Of course, repression is not the only outcome of democratic movements: for example, democratic movements in Eastern Europe in 1989-90 (with the partial exception of Romania) led to concessions and democratic reforms by the governments involved.
In this article I provide an enhanced version of the data set of democratic movements in Minier (2001), incorporating a classification of the government's response to each movement.
The main goal of the paper is to use a new data set on democratic movements to estimate the relationship between income and democracy, testing more directly than has previously been done whether democracy is a normal good.
To construct the data set of democratic movements, I consulted a wide range of historical and political sources.
There is also a rich discussion on the conditions that led to the democratic movement
in Africa and how popular movements and the new wave of multiparty politics have challenged the African state.
There have been in China several waves in the democratic movement during the 40-some years since the establishment of the Communist regime.
However, when the 1989 democratic movement broke out, these student organizations were sought out by more students as they grew in prominence.
First, let us confirm that there are three main political powers in Egypt: the Islamist political movements, at the heart of which is the Muslim Brotherhood; the feloul or remnants of the former regime or supporters of the hegemonic state, at the heart of which is the armed forces and the security apparatus; and lastly the democratic movement, at the heart of which is the political parties of the National Salvation Front.
This time, the Brotherhood faces an alliance between the supporters of the hegemonic state and the democratic movement, but where are the people in this fight?
It is too soon to say whether the second Gulf War will spark a wave of democratic movements
throughout the Middle East, as the president promised in his speech to the American Enterprise Institute before it began.
Written for students of women's studies and international law, this book describes the author's own experiences in fomenting social change for women in India, and how she has had to vary her strategies to adapt to both government policy and the shifting attitudes among other democratic movements