multi-infarct dementia

(redirected from Dementia, vascular)

dementia

 [dĕ-men´shah]
a general loss of cognitive abilities, including impairment of memory as well as one or more of the following: aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, or disturbed planning, organizing, and abstract thinking abilities. It does not include loss of intellectual functioning caused by clouding of consciousness (as in delirium), depression, or other functional mental disorder (pseudodementia). Causes include a large number of conditions, some reversible and some progressive, that result in widespread cerebral damage or dysfunction. The most common cause is Alzheimer's disease; others include cerebrovascular disease, central nervous system infection, brain trauma or tumors, vitamin deficiencies, anoxia, metabolic conditions, endocrine conditions, immune disorders, prion diseases, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, normal-pressure hydrocephalus, Huntington's chorea, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease.
dementia of the Alzheimer type official name for alzheimer's disease.
Binswanger's dementia a progressive dementia of presenile onset due to demyelination of the subcortical white matter of the brain, with sclerotic changes in the blood vessels supplying it.
boxer's dementia a syndrome more serious than boxer's traumatic encephalopathy, the result of cumulative injuries to the brain in boxers; characterized by forgetfulness, slowness in thinking, dysarthric speech, and slow, uncertain movements, especially of the legs.
epileptic dementia a progressive mental and intellectual deterioration that occurs in a small fraction of cases of epilepsy; it is thought by some to be caused by degeneration of neurons resulting from circulatory disturbances during seizures.
multi-infarct dementia vascular d.
paralytic dementia (dementia paraly´tica) general paresis.
dementia prae´cox (obs.) schizophrenia.
presenile dementia name given to dementia of the Alzheimer type when it occurs in persons younger than age 65.
senile dementia name given to dementia of the Alzheimer type when it occurs in persons aged 65 or older.
substance-induced persisting dementia that resulting from exposure to or use or abuse of a substance, such as alcohol, sedatives, anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, lead, mercury, carbon monoxide, or organophosphate insecticides, but persisting long after exposure to the substance ends, usually with permanent and worsening deficits. Individual cases are named for the specific substance involved.
vascular dementia patchy deterioration of intellectual function resulting from damage by a significant cerebrovascular disorder.

vas·cu·lar de·men·ti·a

a steplike deterioration in intellectual functions with focal neurologic signs, as the result of multiple infarctions of the cerebral hemispheres.

multi-infarct dementia

Neurology A condition characterized by global cognitive impairment due to ASHD-induced disease; MID is more common in ♀ and associated with DM, HTN, smoking, amyloidosis Clinical Gait and motor defects, defects of language, mood, abstract thinking, apraxia, agnosia, urinary incontinence DiffDx Repeating 'mini-infarcts' of HTN mimic the gradual deterioration typical of the more common Alzheimer's disease, which lacks prominent motor and reflex changes. See Alzheimer's disease.

multi-infarct dementia

Dementia resulting from multiple small strokes. After Alzheimer disease, it is the most common form of dementia in the U.S. It has a distinctive natural history. Unlike Alzheimer disease, which develops insidiously, the cognitive deficits of multi-infarct dementia appear suddenly, in stepwise fashion. The disease is rare before middle age and is most common in patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other risk factors for generalized atherosclerosis. Brain imaging in patients with this form of dementia shows multiple lacunar infarctions. Synonym: vascular dementia
See also: dementia
References in periodicals archive ?
The UK DRI will bring together world-leading expertise in a national institute of over 400 scientists to carry out research relevant to all dementias, including Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, Huntingtons disease.
Conclusions Late-life depression is associated with an increased risk for all-cause dementia, vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
Although Alzheimer's accounts for about 75% of dementia cases, other diseases such as traumatic encephalopathy, Pick's disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and medication-related dementia should be considered when cognitive decline is noticed.
Zabar Y (2012) Dementia: mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal lobar dementia, vascular dementia.
Represented Dementia's include: Alzheimer's Dementia, Lewy Body Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, Vascular Dementia, Dementia resulting from Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and/or Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), and many others.
Problems in the cholinergic system can lead to cognitive impairment: Abnormally low levels of acetylcholine in regions of the brain involved in the regulation of memory and learning contribute substantially to the cognitive impairment and behavioral symptoms of people with AD, Lewy body dementia, vascular dementia and even delirium.
A less common form of dementia, vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), can be mistaken for Alzheimer's, explain physicians at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.
1, 1997, and May 30, 2006, for a diagnosis of dementia, vascular dementia, or Alzheimer's disease.
It will be important in future studies to learn whether midlife cardiovascular risk factors are associated with increased risk of developing Alzheimer's dementia, vascular dementia, or both, she said.
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, death certificates, presenile dementia, vascular dementia
Unlike Alzheimer's disease and most other dementia, vascular dementia is preventable.