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Pregnancy Category: B
Pharmacologic: loop diuretics
Pharmacologic: loop diuretics
Edema due to:
- Hepatic or renal disease.
Inhibits the reabsorption of sodium and chloride from the loop of Henle and distal renal tubule.
Increases renal excretion of water, sodium, chloride, magnesium, hydrogen, and calcium.
Effectiveness persists in impaired renal function.
Diuresis and subsequent mobilization of excess fluid (edema, pleural effusions).
Absorption: 80% absorbed after oral administration.
Distribution: Widely distributed.
Protein Binding: ≥99%.
Metabolism and Excretion: 80% metabolized by liver, 20% excreted in urine.
Half-life: 3.5 hr.
Time/action profile (diuretic effect)
|PO||within 60 min||60–120 min||6–8 hr|
|IV||within 10 min||within 60 min||6–8 hr|
Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity;Cross-sensitivity with thiazides and sulfonamides may occur;Hepatic coma or anuria.
Use Cautiously in: Severe liver disease (may precipitate hepatic coma; concurrent use with potassium-sparing diuretics may be necessary);Electrolyte depletion;Diabetes mellitus;Increasing azotemia; Obstetric / Lactation / Pediatric: Safety not established; Geriatric: May have ↑ risk of side effects, especially hypotension and electrolyte imbalance, at usual doses.
Adverse Reactions/Side Effects
Central nervous system
Ear, Eye, Nose, Throat
- hearing loss
- dry mouth
- ↑ BUN
- excessive urination
- stevens-johnson syndrome (life-threatening)
- toxic epidermal necrolysis (life-threatening)
Fluid and Electrolyte
- dehydration (most frequent)
- hypochloremia (most frequent)
- hypokalemia (most frequent)
- hypomagnesemia (most frequent)
- hyponatremia (most frequent)
- hypovolemia (most frequent)
- metabolic alkalosis (most frequent)
- muscle cramps
Drug-Drug interaction↑ hypotension with antihypertensives, nitrates, or acute ingestion of alcohol.↑ risk of hypokalemia with other diuretics, amphotericin B, stimulant laxatives, and corticosteroids.Hypokalemia may ↑ risk of digoxin toxicity and ↑ risk of arrhythmia in patients taking drugs that prolong the QT interval.May ↑ risk of lithium toxicity.↑ risk of ototoxicity with aminoglycosides.NSAIDS may ↓ effects.↑ risk of salicylate toxicity (with use of high-dose salicylate therapy).Cholestyramine may ↓ absorption.
Oral Intravenous (Adults) 10–20 mg once daily; dose may be doubled until desired effect is obtained (maximum daily dose = 200 mg).Chronic Renal Failure
Oral Intravenous (Adults) 20 mg once daily; dose may be doubled until desired effect is obtained (maximum daily dose = 200 mg).Hepatic Cirrhosis
Oral Intravenous (Adults) 5–10 mg once daily (with aldosterone antagonist or potassium-sparing diuretic); dose may be doubled until desired effect is obtained (maximum daily dose = 40 mg).Hypertension
Oral Intravenous (Adults) 2.5–5 mg once daily, may be ↑ to 10 mg once daily after 4–6 wk (if still not effective, add another agent).
Availability (generic available)
Tablets: 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 100 mg Cost: Generic — 5 mg $63.42 / 100, 10 mg $70.27 / 100, 20 mg $82.08 / 100, 100 mg $304.00 / 100
Injection: 10 mg/mL
- Assess fluid status during therapy. Monitor daily weight, intake and output ratios, amount and location of edema, lung sounds, skin turgor, and mucous membranes. Notify health care provider if thirst, dry mouth, lethargy, weakness, hypotension, or oliguria occurs.
- Monitor BP and pulse before and during administration. Monitor frequency of prescription refills to determine adherence in patients treated for hypertension.
- Assess patients receiving digoxin for anorexia, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps, paresthesia, and confusion. Patients taking digoxin are at increased risk of digoxin toxicity due to potassium-depleting effect of the diuretic. Potassium supplements or potassium-sparing diuretics may be used concurrently to prevent hypokalemia.
- Assess patient for tinnitus and hearing loss. Audiometry is recommended for patients receiving prolonged high-dose IV therapy. Hearing loss is most common following rapid or high-dose IV administration in patients with decreased renal function or those taking other ototoxic drugs.
- Assess for allergy to sulfonamides.
- Assess patient for skin rash frequently during therapy. Discontinue torsemide at first sign of rash; may be life-threatening. Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis may develop. Treat symptomatically; may recur once treatment is stopped.
- Geriatric: Diuretic use is associated with increased risk for falls in older adults. Assess falls risk and implement fall prevention strategies.
- Lab Test Considerations: Monitor electrolytes, renal and hepatic function, serum glucose, and uric acid levels before and periodically during therapy. May cause ↓ serum sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium concentrations. May also cause ↑ BUN, serum glucose, creatinine, and uric acid levels.
Potential Nursing DiagnosesExcess fluid volume (Indications)
Risk for deficient fluid volume (Side Effects)
- Administer medication in the morning to prevent disruption of sleep cycle.
- IV is preferred over IM for parenteral administration.
- Oral: May be taken with food or milk to minimize gastric irritation.
- Diluent: Administer undiluted.Concentration: 10 mg/mL.
- Rate: Administer slowly over 2 min.
- May also be administered as a continuous infusion.
- Y-Site Compatibility: milrinone, nesiritide
- Instruct patient to take torsemide as directed. Take missed doses as soon as possible; do not double doses.
- Caution patient to change positions slowly to minimize orthostatic hypotension. Caution patient that the use of alcohol, exercise during hot weather, or standing for long periods during therapy may enhance orthostatic hypotension.
- Instruct patient to consult health care professional regarding a diet high in potassium (see ).
- Advise patient to contact health care professional if they gain more than 2–3 lb/day.
- Instruct patient to notify health care professional of all Rx or OTC medications, vitamins, or herbal products being taken and to consult health care professional before taking any OTC medications concurrently with this therapy.
- Instruct patient to notify health care professional of medication regimen prior to treatment or surgery.
- Caution patient to use sunscreen and protective clothing to prevent photosensitivity reactions.
- Advise patient to contact health care professional immediately if rash muscle weakness, cramps, nausea, dizziness, numbness, or tingling of extremities occurs.
- Advise diabetic patients to monitor blood glucose closely; may cause increased blood glucose levels.
- Emphasize the importance of routine follow-up examinations.
- Hypertension: Advise patients on antihypertensive regimen to continue taking medication even if feeling better. Torsemide controls but does not cure hypertension.
- Reinforce the need to continue additional therapies for hypertension (weight loss, exercise, restricted sodium intake, stress reduction, regular exercise, moderation of alcohol consumption, cessation of smoking).
- Decrease in edema.
- Decrease in abdominal girth and weight.
- Increase in urinary output.
- Decrease in BP.