High use of HCTZ was defined as filled prescriptions totaling greater than or equal to 50,000 mg of HCTZ, which corresponds to greater than or equal to 2,000 defined daily doses (for example, approximately 6 years of cumulative use).
For patients receiving non-prophylactic antibiotics, the proportion of patients receiving a particular antibiotic was multiplied by the C-DDD and converted to defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 patient days (C-DDD/1000).
Moreover, her study found that 10 states had prescribing at the rate of 87-200 defined daily doses per 1,000 Medicaid beneficiaries per day in 2002, while 8 states had prescribing at a rate of 0-39 defined daily doses per 1,000 Medicaid beneficiaries per day.
Patients either of male sex or with more than 180 cumulative defined daily doses within the first year "had a significantly higher risk of developing cancer, and those with both factors had an even greater SIR [standardized incidence ratio] of 1.
Sales data for total antibiotic use (anatomic therapeutic classification [ATC] group J01) and macrolide use (ATC group J01F) were used to express outpatient consumption in defined daily doses (DDD) per 1,000 inhabitants per day, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) (14).