METFAZ and the Parchin facility are part of Iran's umbrella engineering unit for the nuclear weapons program, the Organization of Defensive Innovation
and Research, known as the SPND.
Treasury Department announced that it was imposing new sanctions on 14 people and 17 entities connected to Iran's Organization of Defensive Innovation
and Research, a research organization the U.S.
This includes ensuring that Iran never develops a nuclear weapon." It added that the US on Friday "designated 31 Iranian individuals and entities that have contributed to, supported, or are otherwise linked to Iran's nuclear proliferation-sensitive activities." "All of the targets designated are linked to Iran's Organization of Defensive Innovation
and Research (known by its Persian acronym as SPND) - an entity established by Mohsen Fakhrizadeh, the head of the regime's past nuclear weapons program," it explained.
Iran's Organization of Defensive Innovation
and Research, known by its Farsi acronym SPND, would continue to serve as a platform for research in nuclear-relevant fields and in the training of new scientists, taking care to conceal experiments that might not be easily explained to outsiders, officials say in the documents.
Much of the Coatings Industry's R&D spend is going toward defensive innovation
, focusing resources on complying with regulations rather than creating new applications or functionality for coatings.
Abrichamtchi said Iran's Organisation of Defensive Innovation
and Research handled Iran's sensitive nuclear activity and also managed the new facility.
The IAEA believes that Fakhrizadeh secretly opened SPND, meaning, in Persian, the Organization of Defensive Innovation
and Research, in 2011 and that elements of Iran's nuclear-arms research, which they thought were shelved in 2003 and which also have civilian applications, may be taking place there, the report said.
Conversely, imports for the high-skill sector group remained static between 1978 and 1986 - perhaps indicating that defensive innovation
succeeded in reducing import competition from LWCs in this sector (however, the relatively high import share of LWCs in this high-skill sector suggests that the degree of low-wage country competition may be sufficient to be a plausible cause of defensive innovation
He suggests that Northern firms in the unskilled sector will engage in 'defensive innovation
', adopting new technologies which use less unskilled labour and more skilled labour in response to increased competition from Southern imports.
In the next sentence, how ever, the IAEA said, "Eventually, according to the information, a new organization known as the Organization of Defensive Innovation
and Research ...