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Jean. Nursing educator, administrator, researcher, theorist, and practitioner. She began the development of a theory of nursing as human caring in 1979, believing that nursing must move to a new paradigm of humanism. Her theory of human caring makes a substantial contribution to nursing science regarding the spiritual and existential significance of human life. She established the Center for Human Caring at the University of Colorado to provide support for researchers exploring the phenomena of human care.
Cecil J., U.S. physician, 1901-1983. See: Watson-Schwartz test.
James Dewey, 20th-century U.S. geneticist and Nobel laureate. See: Watson-Crick helix.
a nursing theorist who proposed a philosophy and science of caring in 1979 in an effort to reduce the dichotomy between theory and practice. Her theory of human caring reflects an existential phenomenologist's view of psychology and humanities. Caring is a universal social phenomenon that is only effectively practiced interpersonally. Watson identified 10 caring factors: (1) the formation of a humanistic-altruistic system of values; (2) the instillation of faith-hope; (3) the cultivation of sensitivity to self and others; (4) the development of a helping-trust relationship; (5) the promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings; (6) the systematic use of the scientific problem-solving method for decision making; (7) the promotion of interpersonal teaching-learning; (8) the provision for a supportive, protective, and corrective mental, physical, sociocultural, and spiritual environment; (9) assistance with the gratification of human needs; and (10) the allowance for existential-phenomenological forces. According to Watson, caring is a nursing term, and nursing concerns itself with health promotion, restoration, and prevention of illness as opposed to curing. Clients require holistic care that promotes humanism, health, and quality of living.