date rape

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rape

 [rāp]
sexual assault or abuse; sexual intercourse (vaginal or anal penetration) against the will and without the consent of the individual. The crime of rape continues to occur at an alarming rate. Many cases are not reported by victims because of feelings of shame, guilt, embarrassment, or fear. Most rape victims are girls or women, although rape or sexual assault can also occur between men (homosexual rape). 

Immediately after the crime of rape has occurred, victims should be calmed as much as possible and assured that they are safe. Any bleeding wounds, fractures, or other existing injuries should be treated. They should be encouraged to obtain treatment as soon as possible and not to change clothes, bathe, douche, or urinate because that could destroy legal evidence needed to arrest and convict the attacker.

Rape is a physical and psychological emergency, and the victim must be treated with compassion as well as professional competence. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has provided guidelines for the physical care of a rape victim, identifying a twofold purpose for the physical examination: (1) to protect the victim against disease, pregnancy, and psychological trauma, and (2) to aid in the collection of legal evidence that could be used later in court.

Many hospitals have on call a rape counselor who can stay with the victim through emergency treatment and provide guidance and referral to a follow-up program of care. Recovery from rape is a difficult task. Some victims may appear to return to normal rather quickly, when in fact they are using temporary psychological mechanisms such as denial, suppression, and rationalization. Crisis intervention through all phases of the recovery period is a necessary component of the total care of a rape victim. The main purposes of follow-up are to keep channels of communication open to victims, assess their coping skills, to offer support and encouragement in efforts to resume life, and to provide assistance and referral if necessary. Rape is a crime of violence in which the sexual act is secondary to the brutality of the attack.

The American College of Emergency Physicians has published a consensus document called Evaluation and Management of the Sexually Assaulted or Abused Patient. It is available from ACEP Sales and Service, P.O. Box 619911, Dallas TX 75261-9911 or on their web site at http://www.acep.org. They can also be reached by telephone at 1-800-798-1822, ext. 6. A review of informative materials for women who have been raped or sexually assaulted, and practice guidelines for care, is available from the National Violence Against Women Prevention Research Center, whose web site is http://www.vawprevention.org.
acquaintance rape (date rape) rape by someone known to the victim.
rape-trauma syndrome
1. a group of symptoms caused by, or that are responses to, rape.
2. a nursing diagnosis approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as a sustained maladaptative response to a forced, violent sexual penetration against the victim's will and consent. It includes an acute phase of disorganization of the victim's lifestyle, followed by a long-term phase of reorganization of lifestyle. Characteristics in the acute phase may include emotional reactions such as anger, humiliation, revenge, and self-blame, and multiple physical symptoms. In the long-term phase the victim must cope with changes in lifestyle that could include moving to another residence, changing telephone number, dealing with recurrent nightmares and phobias, and seeking support from individuals and groups.



There may also be either a compound reaction or a silent reaction. The nursing diagnosis rape trauma syndrome: compound reaction is identified as an acute stress reaction to a rape or attempted rape, experienced along with other major stressors that can include reactivation of symptoms of a previous condition. The victim suffers from the emotional and physiological manifestations listed above and may also resort to reliance on drugs or alcohol and experience reactivated symptoms of preexisting physical or psychiatric illnesses. The nursing diagnosis rape trauma syndrome: silent reaction is identified as a complex stress reaction to a rape in which an individual is unable to describe or discuss the rape. Characteristics can include sudden changes in relationships with men and in sexual behavior, increasing anxiety during interview, silence about the rape incident, and sudden onset of phobic reactions.
A type of rape, an event that affects 20% of adolescent girls, peaking at age 16–19. Date rape is the end-point of sexual play in which the woman may have initially been an active participant, but which advances to forced nonconsensual coitus

date rape

Nonconsensual, unsolicited, and unwelcome sexual relations between individuals who are currently or were previously romantically involved or sexually intimate.
See also: rape
References in periodicals archive ?
"The devastation of being a victim of a date-rape attack is pretty phenomenal.
What is supremely annoying about the date-rape debate is that it's making everyone horribly mistrustful and self-conscious about something that ought to proceed easily and naturally.
News also declared that a date-rape policy like Swarthmore's would "ruin sex for the next generation." Swarthmore senior Jessica Lang-McGrew commented, "Nothing can ruin sex faster for young people than having it forced upon them." Lang-McGrew, a biochemistry major from Washington, D.C., who is currently a coordinator of the school's acquaintance sexual assault prevention workshop, explained, "We're trying to protect young people's right to choose whether or not to engage in any kind of sexual behavior, to choose with whom and in what context.
She was medically examined and it is believed she was given a date-rape drug.
Cigarettes dipped in embalming fluid first appeared as a new date-rape risk in North Carolina, America, at the end of the 1990s.
Her sister Sandra Hitchmough, of The Fairway, West Derby, asked if the fact she might have had the date-rape drug, rohypnol, did not raise suspicion.
A mixed-gender date-rape prevention program developed by Holcomb, Sondag, & Holcomb (1993) was presented to the men and women freshmen athletes by two women health education instructors.
RESEARCH into cocktail stirrers which can show if a drink has been spiked with a date-rape drug is being paid for by a firm behind two Nuneaton night clubs.
The danger to women has increased in recent years by the use of so-called date-rape drugs which can be slipped into a drink and render the victim unconscious.
In Britain, the Home Office's Forensic Science Service has tested for Rohypnol in about 10 date-rape cases.
So far, most of the attention surrounding Katie Roiphe's The Morning After: Sex, Fear, and Feminism on Campus has centered on her claim that the date-rape epidemic has been created and fostered by feminists, blown out of proportion with inflated statistics, embellished stories, and inflammatory rhetoric.
A COMPUTER expert who amassed a million dollar fortune by selling a chemical used to make the date-rape drug GHB has been jailed for almost six years.