Darwinism

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darwinism

 [dar´wĭ-nizm]
the theory of evolution stating that change in a species over time is partly the result of a process of natural selection, which enables the species to continually adapt to its changing environment.

Darwinism

(där′wĭ-nĭz′əm)
n.
A theory of biological evolution developed by Charles Darwin and others, stating that all species of organisms have developed from other species, primarily through natural selection. Also called Darwinian theory.

Dar′win·ist n.
Dar′win·is′tic adj.
The current paradigm of evolution, which holds that cumulative changes in successive generations of organisms—i.e., evolution of species—results from mutation and natural selection of the organisms that are best adapted phenotypically to survive in an environment—i.e., ‘survival of the fittest’

Darwinism

the theory of evolution formulated by Charles DARWIN that holds that different species of plants and animals have arisen by a process of slow and gradual changes over successive generations, brought about by NATURAL SELECTION. The essential points of Darwin's theory are:
  1. in organisms that reproduce sexually there is a wide range of variability, both within and between species.
  2. all living forms have the potential for a rapid rise in numbers, increasing at a geometric rate.
  3. the fact that populations usually remain within a limited size must indicate a ‘struggle for existence’ in which those individuals unsuited to the particular conditions operating at that time are eliminated or fail to breed as successfully as others (see FITNESS).
  4. the struggle for existence results in natural selection that favours the survival of the best-adapted individuals, a process described by Herbert Spencer (1820–93) in his Principles of Biology (1865) as the ‘survival of the fittest’.
References in periodicals archive ?
By fathering Ego and for having a blissful marriage for those five wonderful years that--courtesy of a wonderful lady--would have gone on to six, seven, and so on had the secrets of his past gay life not been known, to Darwin, he is an accomplished innate Darwinist in sexuality whom the environment has pushed to become gay.
In Mind & Cosmos, Nagel serves notice on Darwinists that their coercive tactics at ensuring conformity have not worked with him and, if his example inspires others, won't work with them either.
Yet, social Darwinist and neo-Darwinist assumptions continue to hold a place "among the great, sad, epochal insights that we say have made us modern" (107).
When it comes to attitudes toward health and well-being, Adams warns that the Disengaged Darwinists may be on a collision course with the healthcare system.
For readers looking for a creative fusion of science fiction and alternative history, read Leviathan and decide whether the Clankers or the Darwinists have the edge.
And it is precisely here that we need to discern the basic kinship of Darwin's thought with the literary theory that self-described literary Darwinists tend to reject.
Louis, professor Joseph Carroll opened the debate in 1995 with the publication of Evolution and Literary Theory, arguing that fiction evolved as a form of "cognitive regulation," With the great expansion of human intelligence thousands of years ago, storytelling emerged to bring "order to our newly complex inner world." Brian Boyd, the author of On the Origin of Stories (2009), describes fiction as evolutionarily helpful because it is the "way we train our minds for the vital business of social existence" Other Darwinists say that great writers help win the battle of natural selection because fiction extends the range of experience, empathy, emotions, and creativity.
Official Soviet biological doctrine was Lysenkoism, and Russian Darwinists were denounced as "Trotskyite agents of international fascism" and thrown into the Gulag for their scientific sins,
Likewise, Jerry Bergman supports Stern's claim that the field of eugenics originated from the social Darwinists' desire to correct these "undesirable genetic constitutions," and that Francis Galton was one such scientist who did pioneering work for the Nazi eugenics program.
Of particular note is the essay, "No Color Barrier: Italians, Race, and Power in the United States" by Thomas Guglielmo, which describes the classification, by Italian social Darwinists in the late nineteenth century, of Northern Italians as being from Aryan stock and Southerners possessing inferior African blood and how this categorization continued upon arrival in the United States.
Hofstadter's "Social Darwinists" were misled in two primary, related ways.
Both Spencerian and Progressive Darwinists embraced the pseudoscientific distortions about an inherent racial hierarchy.