inhibitor

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inhibitor

 [in-hib´ĭ-tor]
1. any substance that interferes with a chemical reaction, growth, or other biologic activity.
2. a chemical substance that inhibits or checks the action of a tissue organizer or the growth of microorganisms.
3. an effector that reduces the catalytic activity of an enzyme.
ACE i's (angiotensin-converting enzyme i's) see angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
angiogenesis inhibitor a group of drugs that prevent growth of new blood vessels into a solid tumor.
aromatase i's a class of drugs that inhibit aromatase activity and thus block production of estrogens; used to treat breast cancer and endometriosis.
C1 inhibitor (C1 INH) a member of the serpin group, an inhibitor of C1, the initial component activated in the classical complement pathway. Deficiency of or defect in the protein causes hereditary angioedema.
carbonic anhydrase inhibitor an agent that inhibits the enzyme carbonic anhydrase; used in treatment of glaucoma and sometimes for epilepsy, familial periodic paralysis, acute mountain sickness, and kidney stones of uric acid.
cholinesterase inhibitor anticholinesterase.
COX-2 i's (cyclooxygenase-2 i's) a group of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs that act by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 activity; they have fewer gastrointestinal side effects than other NSAIDs. Two members of the group are celecoxib and rofecoxib.
gastric acid pump inhibitor an agent that inhibits gastric acid secretion by blocking the action of H+,K+-ATPase at the secretory surface of gastric parietal cells; called also proton pump i.
HIV protease inhibitor any of a group of antiretroviral drugs active against the human immunodeficiency virus; they prevent protease-mediated cleavage of viral polyproteins, causing production of immature viral particles that are noninfective. Examples include indinavir sulfate, nelfinavir mesylate, ritonavir, and saquinavir.
HMG-CoA reductase i's a group of drugs that competitively inhibit the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis, and are used to lower plasma lipoprotein levels in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemia. Called also statins.
membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (MIRL) protectin.
monoamine oxidase inhibitor any of a group of drugs that inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase, the enzyme that breaks down norepinephrine and serotonin, prescribed for their antidepressant action; the most widely used ones are isocarboxazid, phenelzine, and tranylcypromine. They are also used in the prevention of migraine.
α2-plasmin inhibitor α2-antiplasmin.
plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) any of several regulators of the fibrinolytic system that act by binding to and inhibiting free plasminogen activator. Their concentration in plasma is normally low, but is altered in some disturbances of bodily hemostasis. PAI-1 is an important fast-reacting inhibitor of t-plasminogen activator and u-plasminogen activator. Its synthesis, activity, and release are highly regulated; elevated levels of it have been described in a number of disease states. PAI-2 is a normally minor inhibitor that greatly increases in concentration during pregnancy and in certain disorders. PAI-3 is protein C inhibitor.
platelet inhibitor any of a group of agents that inhibit the clotting activity of platelets; the most common ones are aspirin and dipyridamole. See also antiplatelet therapy.
protease inhibitor
1. a substance that blocks activity of endopeptidase (protease), such as in a virus.
protein C inhibitor the primary inhibitor of activated anticoagulant protein C; it is a glycoprotein of the serpin family of proteinase inhibitors and also inhibits several other proteins involved in coagulation (thrombin, kallikrein, and coagulation factors X and XI) and urokinase. Called also plasminogen activator inhibitor 3.
proton pump inhibitor gastric acid pump i.
reverse transcriptase inhibitor a substance that blocks activity of the reverse transcriptase of a retrovirus and is used as an antiretroviral agent. Some are nucleosides or nucleoside analogues, and those that are not are therefore often called non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) any of a group of drugs that inhibit the inactivation of serotonin by blocking its absorption in the central nervous system; used as antidepressants and in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.
serine protease inhibitor (serine proteinase inhibitor) serpin.
topoisomerase i's a class of antineoplastic agents that interfere with the arrangement of DNA in cells.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

in·hib·i·tor

(in-hib'i-tŏr, -tōr),
1. An agent that restrains or retards physiologic, chemical, or enzymatic action.
See also: inhibition.
2. A nervous system structure, stimulation of which represses activity.
See also: inhibition.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

inhibitor

also

inhibiter

(ĭn-hĭb′ĭ-tər)
n.
One that inhibits, as a substance that retards or stops a chemical reaction.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

inhibitor

Medtalk A substance that inhibits the activity of protein or downregulates a pathway. See ACE inhibitor, Aldose reductase inhibitor, Angiogenesis inhibitor, Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, Bowman Birk protease inhibitor, Cartilage-derived inhibitor, Cholinergic inhibitor, COMT inhibitor, Factor VIII inhibitor, FLAP inhibitor, HMG CoA reductase inhibitor, Lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor, Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Neuraminidase inhibitor, Neuropeptide Y inhibitor, Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, NOS inhibitor, Plasminogen activator inhibitor, Postsynaptic serotonin antagonist-presynaptic serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Protease inhibitor, Reverse transcriptase inhibitor, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, SLPI inhibitor, SSRI inhibitor, Tissue factor pathway inhibitor, Topoisomerase inhibitor, Trojan Horse inhibitor, Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Vasopeptidase inhibitor.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

in·hib·i·tor

(in-hib'i-tŏr)
1. An agent that restrains or retards physiologic, chemical, or enzymatic action.
2. A nerve, stimulation of which represses activity.
See also: inhibition
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

in·hib·i·tor

(in-hib'i-tŏr)
1. An agent that restrains or retards physiologic, chemical, or enzymatic action.
2. A nervous system structure, stimulation of which represses activity.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
For dual therapy in patients with T2DM without CV disease who remain hyperglycemic despite metformin and lifestyle modifications, SGLT-2 inhibitors, GLP-1 agonists, and DPP-4 inhibitors are recommended equally, with the choice among them to be determined by "consideration of drug-specific effects and patient factors." (3)
The mean age in years among different treatment groups was 54 [+ or -] 11, 57 [+ or -] 12, 56 [+ or -] 10, and 59 [+ or -] 13 in pioglitazone, DPP-4 inhibitor, voglibose, and insulin group, respectively.
Those in the SGLT-2 inhibitor group were followed for a mean of 439 days, and those in the DPP-4 inhibitor group were followed for a mean of 446 days.
Zheng explained that the reasons behind the apparent reduced effectiveness of DPP-4 inhibitors is unclear, though it maybe they are simply less powerful than the other two types of medication.
The patients were diagnosed with T2D as their blood glucose control specified in the Treatment Guide for Diabetes (Japan Diabetes Society 2010) was inadequately controlled (HbA1c [greater than or equal to] 7.0%) according to the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP), despite insulin therapy in addition to dietary/exercise therapy or concomitant oral drug therapy other than DPP-4 inhibitors over [greater than or equal to] 12 weeks.
A total of 4 studies (n = 132 patients) investigated the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on arterial stiffness, which were associated with a significant reduction in PWV (pooled MD = -0.18, 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.07, p = 0.002).
A published review on the effects of DPP-4s on the liver included studies which report that DPP-4 inhibitors corrected hepaticsteatosis as well as those which described a close association with hepaticsteatosis (19).
However, studies that examine the potential pleiotropic and nonglycemic effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on various cells and tissues may help to understand and interpret the difference in the observed cardiovascular side effects in some of the clinical trials.
Holman said the TECOS trial does prove the utility of sitagliptin, noting that patients randomized to the DPP-4 inhibitor required significantly fewer antihyperglycemic agents than those in the placebo arm and were less likely to start long-term insulin therapy.
"The good thing about DPP-4 inhibitors is that they don't lead to weight gain," Thornberry explained.
While 2,198 patients (24.5 percent) prescribed metformin required a second oral medication, 37.1 percent of patients prescribed a sulfonylurea, 39.6 percent prescribed a thiazolidinedione and 36.2 percent prescribed a DPP-4 inhibitor did.