Hypermethylation of SYK (spleen tyrosine kinase) or CHFR (checkpoint with fork-head associated and ring finger) occurs specifically in advanced stages of HCC, whereas abnormal DNA methylation of p15, GAAD45a, SFRP1, DOK1
, CHRNA3, GSTP1, CRABP1, p16, and RASSF1A occurs at all stages of HCC [20-23].
In comparison with liver tissue from patients who have HCC with or without cirrhosis, HBV or HCV can induce changes in specific genes in the process of DNA repair, cell cycle control, and signal transduction of apoptosis (RASSF1A, GSTP1, CHRNA3, and DOK1 are specific genes that exist in HCC tumors) [17, 18].
Ref number Damage factors Inflammation markers  HBV, HCV, NASH IL-6 [6,7] HBV, HCV, NASH TNF-[alpha]  HBV, HCV, NASH TGF-[beta], [H.sub.2][O.sub.2], NO  Mitochondrial p53 dysfunction  NASH CYP2E1 [17,18] HBV, HCV RASSF1A, GSTP1, CHRNA3, DOK1  HBV.HCV, NASH cfDNA [28, 29] HBV, HCV, NASH miRNA  HBV, HCV, NASH miRNA-199a, miR-199b, miR-122a, miR-92, miR-222  HBV, HCV, NASH NF-kB, OxLDL [32-35] NASH IL-17 [36-47] NASH Adiponectin  NASH Sulfatase 2 [49-51] NASH Adiponectin  HBV IL-1[beta], IL-6, CXCL-8, TNF-[alpha] [53-55] HBV HBx  HCV PD-L1  HBV, HCV 8-OHdG [58,59] HCV [Fe.sup.2+] Table 2: Summary of antioxidant treatment targets in HCC therapy.
Fernandes et al., "RASSF1A and DOK1
promoter methylation levels in hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic liver, and correlation with liver cancer in brazilian patients," PLOS ONE, vol.