DNA sequencing


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to DNA sequencing: DNA fingerprinting

DNA sequencing

n.
The determination of the sequence of nucleotides in a sample of DNA.

base-sequence analysis

A generally automated method for determining the order of nucleotide bases in a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA).

DNA sequencing

The determination of the sequence of base pairs in a length of DNA.

DNA sequencing

determination of the order of NUCLEOTIDES in a DNA molecule or part thereof. A number of techniques is available to determine a DNA sequence, for example the chain-terminator DNA sequencing procedure (see DIDEOXYRIBONUCLEOTIDE). Generally such techniques rely on the power of polyacrylamide gels to resolve NUCLEIC ACID molecules that differ in length by only a single nucleotide. Ladders of DNA fragments are formed on the gels following ELECTROPHORESIS. Both manual and automated methods of sequencing are available.

DNA


DNA binding proteins
are of two general types, histone proteins which are part of the unit structure of chromosomes called nucleosomes and nonhistone proteins which are present in small amounts and include regulatory proteins.
chromosomal DNA
circular DNA
a DNA molecule that is a closed-ring structure, found in mitochondria, prokaryote chromosomes, plasmids, and certain viruses.
closed DNA complexes
the first of two kinetically distinct steps required for RNA polymerase to initiate transcription in which the RNA polymerase holoenzyme binds electrostatically to the promoter DNA.
DNA construct
a DNA molecule which has been inserted into a cloning vector.
copy DNA
a DNA copy of mRNA which contains only regulatory and coding sequences, i.e. introns have been removed. mRNA is copied into double-stranded DNA using reverse transcriptase; the cDNA can then be cloned and amplified and introduced into an expression vector (plasmid or phage) and its protein product produced in either bacterial, yeast, insect or mammalian cells. Called also cDNA.
DNA deletion
DNA double helix
see double helix.
duplex DNA
double-stranded DNA.
end labeling DNA
methods for labeling DNA with radioisotopes or other detectable marker molecules at the ends using the terminal transferase 3′-labeling or polynucleotide kinase for 5′-labeling.
episomal DNA
that present in a cell as extra chromosomal; exemplified by plasmids of prokaryotic cells. See plasmid.
eukaryotic DNA
exogenous DNA
the DNA that has been introduced into a host by cloning.
DNA glycosylases
enzymes involved in the excision-repair mechanisms for DNA.
heteroduplex DNA
duplex DNA with each strand from a different origin.
DNA gyrase
see gyrase.
DNA library
a collection of cloned DNA molecules from a genome.
DNA ligase
an enzyme that seals nicks in the DNA helix, joins Okazaki fragments together during DNA replication and is essential in recombinant DNA technology for DNA cloning.
DNA microarray
an ordered set of thousands of different oligonucleotides immobilized on a microscope slide or other solid surface used for the detection of cognate nucleotide sequences such as the pattern of gene expression in a particular cell population by hybridization with fluorescently labeled cDNA prepared from total mRNA isolated from the cells.
mobile DNA
a sequence present in the variable locations on the chromosome. Called also jumping genes. See also retrotransposon and transposable genetic elements.
open DNA complex
a local opening of about 10 base pairs formed at the transcription initiation site following the electrostatic binding of RNA polymerase holoenzyme to the promoter region.
DNA polymerase
of Escherichia coli; has three distinct enzymatic activities: (a) a 5′ to 3′ polymerase activity which, under the direction of a template DNA, catalyzes the addition of mononucleotide units, produced from deoxynucleoside 5′-triphosphates, to the 3′-hydroxyl terminus of a primer chain; (b) a 5′ to 3′ exonuclease active only on duplex DNA; (c) a 3′ to 5′ exonuclease primarily active on single-stranded DNA which can selectively remove mismatched terminal nucleotides, thus carrying out a proofreading function. Additionally it catalyzes both the pyrophosphorolysis of DNA, a reaction which is the reverse of polymerization, and pyrophosphate exchange which represents a repetitive sequence of nucleotide addition and pyrophosphorolysis.
DNA probe
see probe (2).
DNA repair
a series of enzymatic mechanisms whereby errors or damage to one of the two DNA strands are removed by excision and replaced by correct nucleotides using the undamaged strand as template. The mechanisms include removal of lesions of depurination and DNA glycosylases which recognize altered bases.
repeat DNA, repetitive DNA
includes (a) satellite DNA and so-called (b) interspersed repeated DNA sequences. The latter are interspread throughout the chromosomes in hundreds of thousands of individual copies, each about 300 nucleotides long; they are, unlike satellite DNA, transcribed.
satellite DNA
serially repeated DNA sequences of one or a few nucleotides with a repeat length of up to 250 nucleotides that are not transcribed and commonly located in the heterochromatin associated with the centrometric regions of chromosomes.
selfish DNA
a mobile DNA element that appears to have no function except to replicate itself. Part of junk DNA.
DNA sequencing
determining the order of nucleotides in DNA from which amino acid in a polypeptide chain can be predicted.
single-copy DNA
the fraction of DNA that contains most of the protein-coding genes and reassociates most slowly.
single-stranded DNA
produced when double-stranded DNA is denatured or found naturally in some viruses.
spacer DNA
single-copy DNA sequences which do not encode proteins or functional RNA molecules.
supercoiled DNA
the double helix is itself twisted.
superhelical DNA
a twisted structure formed by circular DNA molecules. See also supercoiled DNA (above).
DNA transcription
DNA translation
unique DNA
DNA sequences that occur only once in the haploid genome.
DNA viruses
contain a single molecule of DNA that is either double or single stranded. Parvoviruses and circoviruses are single stranded, hepadnaviruses are partially double stranded and all others are double stranded. DNA virus families are: Poxviridae, Asfarviridae,Herpesviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Parvoviridae, Circoviridae, and Hepadnaviridae.
Z-DNA
an alternative structural form of DNA which differs from the more commonly occurring B- and related A-form in that the helix is left handed compared with the right hand helixes of B- and A-forms. Z is for zig-zag. The functional significance of Z-DNA is unknown.
References in periodicals archive ?
The upstream sectors of DNA sequencing industry are extremely robust, with the global market dominated by the second-generation DNA sequencing enterprises including Illumina, Thermo Fisher Scientific (through Life Technologies), Roche and the third-generation sequencing enterprises such as Pacific Biosciences.
Researchers will separate and sequence single chromosomal DNA strands, and then using novel technique to make a number of copies of genomes, they will develop DNA sequence libraries for DNA sequencing of single cells.
Within the limit of the Sanger method for DNA sequencing, the result of this plasmid quality control test confirms the integrity of the HBs cDNA sequence inserted in the gWiz blank plasmid, and amplified and characterized as described in the above sections.
Just as some commercial companies now offer genetic testing of hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of genetic markers for less than $1,000, similar "price points" for NextGen DNA sequencing are probably not far off (see also Genetics in Your Practice, "Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Analysis," Internal Medicine News, Oct.
According to the report, one of the major factors driving the Global DNA Sequencing Products market is the successful completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP).
Most investigators interested in reducing DNA sequencing costs anticipate that a few additional two-fold decreases in cost can yet be achieved with the current CAE-based technology, with a realistic lower limit of perhaps $5 million per mammalian-sized genome.
Fields: A breakdown of end-user practices in the use of consumables by field (biotechnology, chemicals, clinical or hospital, defence, diagnostics, energy, environmental, food and drink, forensics, geology, government, healthcare, natural products, pharmaceuticals, research institutes, security and university) in the conduct of PCR, DNA microarray, DNA sequencing, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry and disease biomarker studies.
Many projects aimed at next-generation DNA sequencing technologies require substantial advances in a combination of fields such as signal detection, enzymology, chemistry, engineering, bioinformatics, etc.
Regions: A breakdown of end-user practices in the use of software and databases (including software/database market brands or in-house) by regions (Europe, North America, Asia and Rest of World) in the conduct of PCR, DNA microarray, DNA sequencing, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry and disease biomarker studies.
5 million Phase II SBIR grant over the next three years through the National Human Genome Research Institute's (NHGRI) Advanced DNA Sequencing Technology Program.
facility, located at One Kendall Square in Cambridge, Massachusetts, will have enhanced office and laboratory space to provide additional infrastructure that will enable the company's continued growth and transition from R&D to commercialization of its desktop DNA sequencing technology.
developers of solid-state electronic systems for single-molecule DNA sequencing and analysis, has closed a $10 million venture capital round.