DNA profiling

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Related to DNA profiling: DNA fingerprinting

DNA fin·ger·print·ing

a technique used to compare individuals by molecular genotyping. DNA isolated from a biologic specimen is digested and fractionated. Southern hybridization with a radiolabeled repetitive DNA provides an autoradiographic pattern unique to the individual.

DNA fingerprinting depends on the detection of distinctive DNA sequences in human cellular material (skin, hair, blood, semen). The principal applications of this technique, all of which are based on the premise that no two people have exactly the same genetic makeup, are in determining paternity and maternity, identifying human remains, and matching biologic material left at a crime scene with that of a suspect. The most distinctive features of a person's genome are not the genes themselves but variations in the length and distribution of nongenetic material between gene loci. Although these do not transmit genetic information, they are highly consistent within the cells of each person and highly variable from one person to another. Distinctive nucleotide sequences that are most useful in DNA fingerprinting are variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) and short tandem repeats (STRs). In DNA fingerprinting, the specimen is split into nucleotide fragments by treatment with restriction enzymes and then subjected to gel electrophoresis so as to yield a characteristic pattern of banding. Radioactive probes, composed of short nucleotide sequences (10-15 base pairs for VNTRs, 3-4 pairs for STRs), then identify sites of tandem repeats and hybridize with them. Comparing the results from two or more DNA sources reveals their degree of relatedness. The U.S. Crime Act of 1994 and similar laws in other countries have mandated archival storage of DNA fingerprints of those convicted of certain crimes.

DNA profiling

The identification and documentation of the structure of certain regions of a given DNA molecule, used to determine the source of a DNA sample, to determine a child's paternity, to diagnose genetic disorders, or to incriminate or exonerate suspects of a crime. Also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA typing.
The analysis of short, highly specific, tandem-repeated—or hypervariable— genomic sequences, minisatellites known as variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs), to detect the degree of relatedness to another sequence of oligonucleotides. This method of isolating and visualising of sequences of DNA was developed in 1984 by Alec Jeffreys, who identified minisatellites that do not contribute to gene function but are repeated in the genes and elsewhere in a DNA sample, thus providing highly specific information about that organism or person.

DNA profiling

References in periodicals archive ?
The defense community did succeed, however, in convincing judges that it was crucial to ask what could possibly go wrong with DNA profiling in the forensic context, rather than simply looking for evidence that the technique was generally accepted in the scientific community for research and diagnostic purposes.
Ramachandran has informed that the government has set up DNA profiling technology at Centre and State levels to nab criminals in the country.
She couldn't say that DNA profiling was infallible.
In 1994, a technique called mitochondrial DNA profiling was developed, for use on old and degraded material and the following year SGM DNA profiling allowed DNA to be taken from old, weak and poor quality samples.
Having obtained Standard Council of Canada accreditation and approval from the American Institution for Blood Banks in record time, the young DNA profiling lab has the bio-science sector abuzz with the promise of strong revenue performance.
With the extra supplementary evidence the DNA profiling will provide, we are confident that the cases we put forward will withstand the scrutiny of a court of law.
BURGLARS are the target of a new fast-track DNA profiling service being launched by West Midlands Police.
When the rape happened in 1993, it was before the creation of the national DNA database and an old form of DNA profiling was in use.
NIST has demonstrated that the high doses of radiation used on postal mail to kill anthrax (and other pathogens) does not interfere with standard DNA profiling tests that might be used to gather forensic evidence from letter pieces.
The forensic scientist had travelled to Mold in north Wales to present DNA profiling evidence to a jury for the first time.
Great Britain was an early innovator in DNA profiling, and British police claim to solve 300 to 400 crimes per week using DNA databases.

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