mismatch repair

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mis·match re·pair

replacement of mismatched base pairs by removal of the incorrect base and replacement with the correct base by DNA polymerase.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

mismatch repair

An intrinsic intracellular mechanism which corrects nucleotide insertion errors made during DNA replication, by excising the mismatched base pairs that escaped correction by the proofreading activities of DNA polymerases and replacing the mismatched bases with the correct ones.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

mismatch repair

a DNA REPAIR mechanism that operates to correct errors caused by MISMATCH OF BASES in newly replicated DNA. The newly synthesized DNA strand containing the incorrect BASE is cut, the base removed and the correct base inserted. In ESCHERICHIA COLI, delayed METHYLATION is used as a means of distinguishing the old (parental) DNA strand from the new (daughter) strand of the newly replicated DUPLEX. A METHYL TRANSFERASE ENZYME acts slowly after DNA REPLICATION to ensure that the daughter strand remains undermethylated, relative to the parent strand, for a while. This allows the repair system to recognize the daughter strand and replace the wrong base.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Furthermore, some markers, such as androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) expression and mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes, may help select treatment in castration-resistant PCa.
[46] The incidence of cancer was high in germline mutation carriers of DNA mismatch repair genes.
The company will now launch a phase 1 clinical trial of the therapeutic vaccine NOUS-209 for gastric, colorectal and gastro-esophageal junction Microsatellite Instable (MSI) cancers (tumours characterised by a defective DNA mismatch repair system) in combination with the anti-PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab.
DNA Mismatch Repair Gene Alterations in a Population-Based Sample of Young-Onset Colorectal Cancer Patients.
Bristol-Myers announced new data from a cohort of the CheckMate -142 study in which Opdivo plus low-dose Yervoy demonstrated durable clinical benefit as a first-line treatment in patients with microsatellite instability-high, or MSI-H, or DNA mismatch repair deficient, or dMMR, metastatic colorectal cancer, or mCRC.
Approximately 12-15% CRC have deficient DNA mismatch repair, which is characterized in the tumor by MSI (12).
The inherited CRCs are usually syndromic and include Lynch syndrome (or hereditary nonpolyposis CRC), the most common inherited CRC, accounting for 2% to 3% of all CRC, caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) repair genes and the EPCAM gene, and familial adenomatous polyposis and attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis caused by germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, accounting for approximately 1%.
Martin-Lopez et al., "Dynamic control of strand excision during human DNA mismatch repair," Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
These replication errors are caused by polymerase slippage and are normally corrected by the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins; however impairment of this pathway through loss of its components prevents this correction and causes the accumulation of MSI throughout the genome in cancer cells, including coding and noncoding sequences [1].
Hofstra, "Review: clinical aspects of hereditary DNA Mismatch repair gene mutations," DNA Repair, vol.
Anti-PD-1 antibodies are generally more effective in patients with a high frequency of microsatellite instability (MSI), a biomarker that results in dysfunctional DNA mismatch repair, and less effective in other patients.(1) However, in this study, the combination therapy resulted in tumor response regardless of the state of their MSI.