DNA methylation


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DNA methylation

n.
The modification of a DNA base by the addition of a methyl group (CH3). DNA methylation of cytosines in particular regions of a gene can cause that gene's suppression.

DNA methylation

The addition of a methyl group to the cytosine ring that occurs in DNA when it is replicated in a dividing cell. The process forms methyl cytosine and is catalysed by enzymes called DNA methyltransferases. In humans, the change occurs only to those cytosines that preceded guanines in the DNA sequence. Methyl cytosine has a strong tendency to deaminate to form thymidine, and if this mutation is not repaired it remains. It is the commonest kind of genetic variation (polymorphism) in human populations.
References in periodicals archive ?
This study is the first to examine the effect of DNA methylation in breast tumour tissues and cells circulating in the patients' surrounding blood on the association between aspirin use and mortality in women with breast cancer.
"Our findings suggest that DNA methylation may play an important role, and the wide scope of the associations between SES and DNAm is consistent with the wide range of biological systems and health outcomes we know to be shaped by SES."
For that purpose, genome-wide DNA methylation levels were analyzed in flat tree oysters from a mangrove ecosystem during a 2-y period, providing very valuable baseline information about the impact of natural seasonal variation on the oyster epigenome.
We have shown that selected genomic regions with reduced DNA methylation can pass on disease resistance traits to following plant generations," said Jurriaan Ton, professor of plant environmental signalling at the University of Sheffield, and the first author of the study.
CHD has been reportedly linked with Antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) premotor DNA methylation.4 The differences in DNA methylation in vascular tissues with coronary artery disease may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the development of atherosclerosis.
Global DNA methylation was quantified using 5-mC DNA ELISA kit (Zymo Research, Germany), as described previously (28).
Epigenetics includes DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs).[1] DNA methylation is the covalent addition of methyl groups to DNA bases, typically the cytosine of 5'-C-phosphate-G-3' (CpG) dinucleotides.
Genome sequencing following bisulfite conversion, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP), or methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction has recently enabled easier and more accurate identification of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns within a specific tissue in a high-throughput manner.
In this study, we performed a comprehensive screening for global patterns of aberrant DNA methylation and gene expression in the PBMC of SSc and healthy control in order to identify methylation-regulated genes and the enriched pathways and to understand the functional consequence of DNA methylation aberrancy on the regulation of gene expression in SSc.
The reviews broadly cover the topics of DNA methylation, long noncoding RNAs, and single nucleotide polymorphisms, and the original research articles focus on DNA methylation, noncoding centromere RNAs, and mitochondria DNA.
Epigenetic regulation such as DNA methylation is a regulatory process that depends on stochastic and environmental stimuli; it is a process usually associated with gene repression that, in mammals, occurs mainly at cytosine residues located within CpG islands (9).