Thus, we investigated the long-term repercussions of tobacco smoke exposure during lactation on: 1) BAT sympathetic nerve activity, 2) BAT morphology, 3) BAT biomarkers of catecholamine and TH sensitivity (UCP1, [beta]3-AR, TR[alpha]1, TR[beta]1, and Dio2), mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1[alpha]) and fatty acid oxidation (CPT1a), and 4) hypothalamic regulators of BAT thermogenesis (AMPK, POMC, and MC4R).
The mRNA level of Dio2 (Assay ID: Rn00581867_m1) expression was evaluated using TaqMan[R] Fast Universal PCR 11 Master Mix (2X) AmpErase[R] UNG (Catalog #4324018; Applied Biosystems[R], USA) according to the recommendations of the manufacturer.
As shown in Figure 5, both genders in the SE group had no change of Dio2 mRNA levels at adulthood.
While an underlying proinflammatory state increases D2 activity and can affect lymphocyte proliferation , no human study to date has assessed the relationship between adipocyte DIO2 expression and pro- and anti-inflammatory factors and its possible impact on glucose homeostasis.
Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that SAT and VAT adipocyte gene expression of DIO2 differs between obese and lean human AT and that these differences will relate to (1) insulin resistance and (2) expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function, fatty acid flux, and inflammation.
Adipocyte RNA was analyzed for relative expression of DIO2, a gene associated with endocrine function (LEPTIN, ADIPOQ), mitochondrial function (cell death activator (CIDEA), ATP synthase (ATP5A), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B)), fatty acid [beta]-oxidation (acetyl CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM)), fatty acid synthesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC2), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and diglyceride acyltransferase (DGAT)), adipocyte function (PPARgamma (PPAR[gamma])), innate immunity (NLRP3), and select proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines or chemoattractants (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF[alpha]), interleukin-1[beta] (IL-1[beta]), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)).
But polyclonal antibody made against DIO2
reacted only with buckwheat with a 1+ reaction.
There are two types of deiodinases in thyroid, type 1 and type 2 (DIO1 and DIO2
) [12, 13].
No other dio3 mRNA changes were identified in brain and liver of G34 and G42 animals, and no changes were detected for dio2
, tralpha, or trbeta expression in brain, liver, or tail for both stages (data not shown).
Primers for UCP1, PGC-1[alpha], C/EBP[beta], PRDM16, PPAR[gamma]2, CIDEA, DIO2, and CPT1B were listed in Table 1.
Interestingly, as shown in Figure 1(c), BAT specific genes UcP1, cIDEA, DIO2, and fatty acid oxidation related gene CPT1B mRNA expression were significantly raised in epididymal adipose tissue with CL316243 treatment (P < 0.05).
The BAT specific genes DIO2, CIDEA, and CPT1B mRNA were also induced in response to selective [beta]3 agonist.