The disease is also known as the DIDMOAD syndrome (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness).
The Wolfram syndrome (WFS, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man 222300), also known as the DIDMOAD syndrome (diabetes insipidus, early-onset diabetes mellitus, progressive optic atrophy and deafness) is mostly associated with a recessive mutation in the WFS gene I (WFSI), rarely in the WFS2.
Wolfram syndrome (WS), also known as DIDMOAD syndrome, is a neurodegenerative disorder with associations to diabetes insipidus (DI), diabetes mellitus (DM), optic atrophy (OA), and sensorineural deafness.
A DIDMOAD syndrome family with juvenile glaucoma and myopia findings.
Patients with diabetes associated syndromes such as Wolcott-Rallison syndrome, DIDMOAD syndrome
(Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy, and Deafness), type 2 diabetes mellitus or other causes including cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD), steroid-induced diabetes and lipodystrophy were excluded.