A helpful mnemonic developed for assessment and treatment of modifiable causes of UI is DIAPPERS
, which is an acronym that stands for Delirium, Infection, Atrophic urethritis or vaginitis, Pharmaceuticals, Psychological disorders, Excessive urine output, Restricted mobility, and Stool impaction (Dowling-Castronovo, 1985).
While evaluating UI in the frail elderly patient, it is reasonable to look for the 7 possible causes of transient UI described by the acronym and mnemonic DIAPPERS
(Delirium, Infection, Atrophic vaginitis, Psychological, Pharmacologic, Excess urine output, Restricted mobility and Stool impaction).
In 1985, geriatrician Dr Neil M Resnick, chief of the division of geriatrics at the University of Pittsburgh, proposed the mnemonic DIAPPERS
for the following treatable causes of urinary incontinence: delirium, infection, atrophic urethritis and vaginitis, pharmaceuticals, psychologic disorders, excessive urine output (such as from heart failure of hyperglycemia), restricted mobility, and stool impaction (N.
acronym (described in Table 2) identifies potential causes of transient UI (Dowling-Castronovo, 2007; Resnick & Yalla, 1985).
The causes of transient incontinence are easily remembered using the mnemonic DIAPPERS
(delirium, urinary infection, atrophic vaginitis, pharmaceuticals, psychological problem, excess urine output, restricted mobility, stool impaction) coined by Resnick (Resnick, 1984).
The acronym "DIAPPERS
" (delirium, urinary infection, atrophic vaginitis, pharmaceuticals, psychological problem, excess urine output, restricted mobility, stool impaction) lists reversible causes of urinary incontinence.