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The genes DHFR, MTR, and ATIC showed increased expression in the NTD group compared with the control group (Table 3).
However, a minimum of 121 different N loci were being evaluated for linkage to dhfr on the addition chromosome.
falciparum 11 Chloroquine-resistant parasites 12 Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum 26 Chloroquine-resistant strain 20 CQR (chloroquine resistance) 38 pfcrt mutation 15 Transporter 38 Protein 92 Phenotype 62 Cluster # 2 (green) = 123 items Antifolate drug resistance 25 dhfr gene 18 dhps gene 33 dhps mutation 18 pfdhps gene 20 Pyrimethamine resistance 38 pfcrt gene 39 pfmdr1 gene 35 Cluster # 3 (blue) = 89 items Artemisinin resistance 90 Artemisinin-resistant malaria 17 Sub-Saharan Africa 23 Thai-Myanmar border 10 Papua 15 Asia 81 AMDR: antimalarial drug resistance.
I have found the inexpensive and accurate DNA tests from 23andme, www.23andme.com, to be extremely helpful in finding out if there are genetic variants that decrease methyl donors (FOLR, DHFR, MTHFR, MTRR and others), and genetic variants that may decrease DAO essential for breaking down histamine.
Anderson, "Targeting DHFR in parasitic protozoa," Drug Discovery Today, vol.
In brief, multiplex qPCR amplification of TaqMan probe sets (Applied Biosvstems, Carlsbad, CA) for DHFR and GTP cyclo-hydroiase (GTPCH) with respect to [beta]-actin was performed using a 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems).
The former inhibits dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) and latter inhibits dihrydrofolate reductase (DHFR).
Protein 1 mRNA 0.95 Thymidilat-Synthetase (TS) mRNA 0.98 Desoxycytidin-Kinase (DCK) mRNA 1.52 Dehydrofolat-Reduktase (DHFR) mRNA 6.35 MGMT mRNA 2.70 Topoisomerase II (TOPO II) mRNA 1.72 ERCC1 mRNA 1.20 BFGF mRNA 8.20 VEGF mRNA 0.38 Ostrogen-Rezeptor mRNA 1.11 Aromatase mRNA 1.49 C-Kit mRNA 3.90 PDGF-Rezeptor-beta (p65) mRNA 0.38 Farnesyl-Transferase mRNA 1.11 NF-kappa-B (p65) mRNA 1.49 Heat-shock Protein 27 (HSP27) mRNA 3.90
Inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) decreases tetrahydrofolate (THF) levels, which results in attenuated DNA/protein/lipid methylation, inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TS) interference with DNA synthesis, and inhibition of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) transformylase blocks de novo purine synthesis.
This vector contains a human [beta]-globin gene whose expression is controlled by elements of the globin hypersensitive region, and a mutant form of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) for use as a selectable marker.
coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) has 5 Met residues available for replacement.
Another reported selective agent is methotrexate, which targets the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR).