In another study, Deci
, Hodges, Pierson and Tomassone (1992) found that autonomous forms of motivation (i.e., identified regulation and intrinsic motivation) in students with an emotional disturbance and or a learning disability (at both the elementary and high school levels) positively predicted math and reading achievement.
Self-concordance theory, derived from self-determination theory (Deci
& Ryan, 1985), predicts that people are happiest when stated goals match their enduring interests and values (Judge, Bono, Erez, & Locke, 2005).
Utilizing the SDT developed by Deci
and Ryan (2000; 2008), and understanding the historical context of the negative and destructive United States minority-majority race relations, a strong case can be made that the motivational tendencies of African Americans and Hispanics have been moving from intrinsic motivation, to amotivational over the years as a direct result of unfair treatment at the hands of the mainstream society.
Generally, the results of this study are in line with the theoretical assumptions described in the SDT (Ryan and Deci
, 2017) where it is argued that needs satisfaction would directly and indirectly promote PE enjoyment, and in contrast, needs frustration would lead to decreased enjoyment.
The controller and the controlled are both aspects of the same individual, although regulations have not been yet assimilated into the self (Deci
& Ryan, 1985).
In the literature, it was found that adolescent females are influenced by external motives (appearance and weight) as well as friend autonomy in participating in exercise (Ingledew and Sullivan, 2002; Dowson, McInerney, and Nelson, 2006; Bettle et al., 2001; Markland and Vansteenkiste, 2007; Cash, Novy, and Grant, 1994; Deci
, Vallerand, Pelletier, and Ryan, 1991), and this situation strengthens the autonomy of participation in the exercise.
SDT postulates that the social, relational, and environmental contexts also affect motivational functioning, which is mediated by the three basic and innate psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness (Deci
& Ryan, 1991).
Using Self Determination Theory (SDT, Deci
and Ryan 1985), we examine the efficacy of two popular tools--automated daily reminders (i.e., electronic periodic prompts, Fry and Neff 2009), and promoting an oft-repeated canard as fact (i.e., "It takes 21 days to form a habit")--for making positive behavioral changes.
Along these lines, a slightly less external form of regulation would be an introjected regulation, which is reflected when there is not an actual external pressure, but rather a sense of guilt felt from not engaging in a specific behavior, such as exercise (Ryan & Deci
"The timetable was agreed with the French government," a source said, indicating that a deci
sion was expected to be taken in September.