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Although the 5% [O.sub.2] group had higher DDIT3 transcripts, it is important to note that this factor has functioned in many distinct pathways and act in both positive and negative regulation of the programmed cell death process [33, 35, 40].
Isochaihulactone-induced DDIT3 caused apoptosis by stimulating pERK-independent apoptosis.
It has a delicate plexiform capillary network and is associated with characteristic FUS-CHOP (DDIT3) and EWSR1-CHOP gene fusions.
Three break-apart probes, DDIT3, FUS, and EWSR1 (Vysis Inc.), were used according to protocols supplied by the manufacturer.
MnSOD: mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2; Parkin: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PARK2); PGC1 a: peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha; HIF-1-[alpha]: hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit; Bcl-2: B-cell CLL-lymphoma 2; FOXO1: forkhead box O1; LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (MAP1LC3B); Beclin: beclin 1, autophagy related (BECN1); LAMP2: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2; GADPH: glyceraldehyde- 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; CHOP: DNA damage inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3); PERK: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3; PINK: PTEN-induced putative kinase 1; PARKIN: parkin ligase; FIS: fission, mitochondrial 1; MFN: mitofusin 1 (MFN1); Sox-9: transcription factor SOX-9.
The amplified regions contain many tumor associated genes and among them DDIT3. MLS/RCLS carry a rearranged DDIT3 fused to FUS or EWSR1 [5, 6].
(1) Five split-apart probe sets are used at our institution to evaluate most translocations including probes to the EWSR1, FUS, DDIT3, SYT, and FOXO1A genes (Abbott Molecular/Vysis, Des Plaines, Illinois).